Bee and bees products

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History of bee.

(Apis mellifera L.) preceded humans on earth by 10 to 20 million years. Honey bees are one of the oldest forms of animal life still in existence from the Neolithic Age. Primeval humans gathered and ate the honey and honeycombs of wild bees, the only available sweet, as far back as 7000 B.C. Bronze Age societies celebrated preindustrial triumphs by drinking mead, probably the first intoxicating beverage, fermented from honey. The principal medicinal value of honey arises from its antibacterial properties when used as a wound dressing. Honey bees originated in southern Asia, probably in the region of Afghanistan. Man first kept bees about 3000 to 4000 B.C., perhaps as early as 5000 B.C. Apis mellifem, the most widely distributed of the species of Apis, is not native to the Americas. The first record of the introduction of honey bees to the western hemisphere was in 1530 in South America. It was introduced to North America by colonists from Holland in 1638.



Pollinators strongly influence ecological relationships, ecosystem conservation and stability, genetic variation in the plant community, floral diversity, specialization and evolution. Bees play an important, but little recognized role in most terrestrial ecosystems where there is green vegetation cover for at least 3 to 4 months each year. In tropical forests, savannah woodlands, mangrove, and in temperate deciduous forests, many species of plants and animals would not survive if bees were missing. This is because the production of seeds, nuts, berries and fruits are highly dependent on insect pollination, and among the pollinating insects, bees are the major pollinators. In rain forests, especially in high mountain forests where it is too cold for most bees, other pollinators like bats and birds play a greater role in plant pollination. In farmed areas, bees are needed for the pollination of many cultivated crops and for maintaining biodiversity in islands of non-cultivated areas. The main role of bees in the different ecosystems is their pollination work. Other animal species are connected with bees: either because they eat the brood or honey, pollen or wax, because they are parasitic to the bees, or simply because they live within the bees nest.


Bee venom (BV) therapy which utilizes the application of bee venom to treat various diseases has been used since ancient times in traditional medicine honey bee venom as a well known pharmacologically active product of the hive. It is synthesized by the venom glands associated with the sting apparatus of worker and queens, stored in the venom reservoir, and injected through the sting apparatus during the stinging process.


Bee venom is a complex mixture of proteins, peptides and low molecular components. Nowadays its components have been characterised. The main components are proteins and peptides. The composition of fresh and dried BV differs mainly in regards to the volatile components; the overall biological activity is similar.


Assuming that arthritis is very old human disease and that Homo sapiens has probably found relief after bee stings, bee stinging is probably the first apitherapy received by humans. The father of modern Apitherapy the Austrian doctor Philip Terc had rheumatism and cured himself by bee stings. Terc hypothesised that the stronger the rheumatism form, the stronger the BV doses should be. He distinguishes three phases of healing: In the first phase the patient develops a pathological immunity with very weak reaction to bee stinging. In the second he is as sensitive to BV as normal people, with the development of a local painful reaction.


Honey is defined in the Codex Alimentarius of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations as the natural sweet substance produced by honey bee from nectar of blossoms or from secretions of living part of plants or excretions of plant sucking insects on the living parts, which honey bees called, transform and combine with specific substances of their own, store and leave in the honey comb to ripen and mature. It is completely natural product. The-Codex and most of the food regulations world-wide, specify that no additives are permitted in honey.


Honey is a syrup which is highly concentrated solution of a complex mixture of sugars. This mixture is formed by the action of the bees enzymes on the sugars in the nectar, which are mainly sucrose with some glucose or fructose depending on the species of plant. The sucrose is almost all changed to glucose and fructose, which together account for about90% of the total sugar content of honey. More complex sugars make up the other10%. There is usually more fructose than glucose present in honey, on average 1.2times more Nectar from different species of plants contributes different species of plants contributes different amounts of glucose and/or fructose additional to the sucrose, so some floral types of honey have a relatively high content of fructose and some a relatively high content of glucose. Fructose is very soluble in water but glucose is not. Honey typically is about 17% water after the bees have evaporated the nectar to form a sugar syrup. In most types of honey, glucose will not remain in solution at such a high concentration, and glucose crystals are formed. Some honeys which have a high content of fructose never crystallize. Besides sugars, honey contains a wide range of amino acids and vitamins. However, the quantities these nutrients present in the amounts of honey likely to be eaten are too low to be of nutritional significance when compared with the recommended daily intake. Honey also contains a wide range of polyphenols such as flavonoids. These give honey a significant antioxidant activity and may be involved in some of the therapeutic actions of honey.


Bees Milk makes it possible to Cold Formulate A formulator is able to get the benefits of Beeswax in a formulation without having to heat that phase of the formula. The natural lipid composition in Bees Milk closely, mimics the natural lipid composition of the skin, thus copying the sins own natural secretion, making Bees Milk matures emollient. Bees Milk is stabilized, and is compatible with surfactants and other compounds of high ionic strength.


We have already known the scientific favor of bees products. In the result of our research we have observed new applications. For the first time we learned dead of bees as increase the impact of medicine.

The author is associated with the ANAS Institute of Chemistry of Additives named academician A.M.Guliyev Azerbaijan. Department of Botany Hazara University Mansehra Khyber Puktoonkhwa, Pakistan. He can be reached at


Published in: Volume 05 Issue 38

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