In quest of pharmacological potential of snake venom
December 14th, 2014 | Salma Kanwal, Sikandar Khan Sherwani and Rana Kausar | No Comments
Snakes lives everywhere from treetops to the forests, floor in desert and in the ocean. It lives openly.
Snake is very dangerous and threat animal for humans and other animals. It has ability to sting and produce sever disease.
Most snakes are non venomous and some are venomous. Those that have venom use it primarily to kill and subdue prey rather than for self defense. Snake uses smell to track its prey. Snake venom causes painful injury or death to humans.
Cobra bite humans, it extremly painful. If snake bite causes bleeding and blister appears on that place.
Genus Naja is represented in Pakistan by two species and one subspecie. Spectacled Cobra also known as “Indian Cobra” ( Naja naja naja) and Asian Cobra. Subspecie that is Black Cobra.
Naja Naja is the second most venomous species of Cobra. Black Cobra are members of the venomous family of snake known as ” Elapida”
Elapids use their venom both to immobilize their prey and in self defense. A bite from a Cobra can Kill a full grown human in less than thirty (30) minutes without antivenin treatment.
synaptic neurotoxin into victims. This type of toxin inhibit messaging between nerve cells, paralysing muscles, leading to respiratory or cardiac failure.
Snake venom contains neurotoxic, cardiotoxic, cytotoxic and other active compounds. Venom composed of different protein, peptide and free amino acid like nucleotides, lipids, carbohydrates and metalloproteinase enzymes.
Snake venom is a mixture of different enzymes like Oxydoreductase, Transferase, Hydrolases and Lyases.
Snake venom also have toxocological property. They exert toxic and lethal effect on blood , cardiovascular and nervous system.
But on the other perspective snake venom has potential antioxidant activity there is a great scope for further therapeutic application in alleviating the oxidation induces ailments.
Neuro toxin are the outstanding component of snake venom. Neurotoxic protein which also have pharmacological properties.
Venom protein that are enabling such pharmacological properties have not been understood in detail yet in different research. “There are no poisons, only poisonous doses”. Snake venom produces a large variety of antimicrobial peptides that play an important role in natural innate immunity and controlling microbial infections. We may use protein of venom to destroy or kill pathogenic bacteria, virus and fungi.
Snake venom pharmacological characteristics are well studied to become a novel medicine to human wealth.
Antimicrobial resistance is increasing globally. Impact of this increasing is evident in Pakistan with exalation in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) making treatment of infections more difficult and expensive. New antimicrobials are continuously necessary for drug design and development for treatment of infections involving multi drugs-resistant also looking at snake venom to produce such potent and effective antibiotics or drugs through it we may kill pathogenic bacteria, virus and fungi.
Snake venom protein (such as phospholipase A2, metalloproteinases, serinoproteases, L-amino acid oxidases, lectin and other) and peptides (brady kinin potentiators analgesic peptides and other) have found practical application as pharmaceutical agents with significant therapeutic values.
Venom consist of many different substances like protein enzymes which responsible for its biological activities therefore, these compound may interact with specific molecule of some bacteria.
Phospholipase A2 are enzyme of high medical scientific interest the activity of LAAO and PLA2 enzymes may be associated with the antibacterial activity of snake venoms phospholipase A2, a common toxic component of snake venom has been implicated in various pharmacological effects. Phosholipase A2 association of various pharmacological activities with the molecule makes it complicated to establish structure function relationship. However compilation of large sequence data and modification studies help in understanding the molecule. The essential role of phospholipase A2 activity with per-synaptic neurotoxicity is well established.
The enzymatic degradation of phospholipids in the target bacterial membrane may be one of the important factor in the bactericidal property of snake venoms. A possible synergistic action between antimicrobial peptide and the venom enzymes.
Cytotoxin exert adverse effect on cell membrane leading to lysis of cell. To date, only few studies have made on the antimicrobial activities of snake venom sources are consider to kill bacteria by permeability or distributing their membranes.
Snake venom proteins and polypeptides are classified into super families of enzymes and non enzymatic proteins. The members of each super family show similarity in their primary structure. However their biological functions are distinct still now. Among non-enzymatic proteins, super families of three finger toxins serine proteinase inhibitors, C-type lectin related proteins, artrial nutrient peptides and never growth factors have already been well characterized LAAO, phospholipase A2 , metalloprotease are some examples of super familie of enzyms.
In the Microbiology Laboratory of Federal Urdu University Of Arts Science And Technology, we will identify the therapeutic effect of snake venom from Black Cobra. We checked the pharmacological effect against bacteria, virus and fungi.
Salma kanwal is a graduate student, Department of Microbiology, FUUAST, Sikandar Sherwani is a Faculty member in the same department while; Rana Kausar is the Chairperson, Department of Biochemistry, FUUAST, Karachi, Pakistan
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