Posts Contributed By "Muhammad Usman"

  • 14 Posts in Total Contributed by Muhammad Usman
  • Citrus and Citrus Scab

    Citrus is one of the world’s major fruit crop. Citrus fruit belongs to the dicotyledonous family   rutaceae and is grown in tropical and subtropical climates in more than 135 countries .    It is very famous fruit for its delicious taste and dietary importance. Citrus tree is native to the areas of   northeast India and China. Citrus cultivation is known to be started in Nippu…Read More

  • FAMACHA System as a tool of targeted selective treatment

    Dairy sheep and goats play an important role in building economy and providing livelihood in many parts of the world but at the same time they are affected by many diseases particularly parasitic problem. Among parasitic diseases, Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, Trichostrongylus and Telodorsagia are the main genera of gastrointestinal nematodes that are important for small ruminants andHaemonchus (H.) contortus is the most dangerous because of its economic significance. Usually the infection with H. contortus causes severe anaemia and hypoproteinemia which ultimately leads to pale mucus membranes, reduced productivity, depression and death in severe cases.For control of H. contortus, tr…Read More

  • Pesticides residues

    INTRODUCTION The term pesticides consistof many compound that are insecticides,fungicides, herbicides, nematicidesand plant growth regulators. Population is increasing day by day, for the fulfilment of food demand pesticides are used more and more for the purpose of food security. These pesticides contain toxic active ingredients that remain in the food after processing and had great influence on human life and environment.Along with the food we are taking daily dosage of pesticides in our daily diet with an unknown amount of poison. This is why the rate of physiological …Read More

  • Home Generators: Solution or a curse…..

    Noise pollution, after hearing this first thing comes in your mind….”Aaah NOT again! all those same cause and its effects and all”…am I right ?? So here is a recent news. Noise pollution is updated with its new generation, as noise pollution that is considered to be caused by automobiles, industries etc. In short “old ways” now back in action with its latest version in Pakistan ……here presents “generators”. People think of generators as an effective power alternative but its environmental hazards are very high, more than that we can imagine. More often, noise pollution increasing day by day due to deficit of electricity in Pakistan.   “That’s one thing I hate…Read More

  • Biogas production from livestock manure

    GLOBAL ENERGY demand is growing rapidly and approximately 88% of this demand is met by fossil fuels at present time. At the same time, concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere is rising rapidly, with fossil fuel-derived CO2 emission being the most important contributor. In order to minimize related global warming and climate change impacts, GHG emissions must be reduced to less than half of global emission levels of 1990. Another important global challenge is the security of energy supply because most of the known conventional oil and gas reserves are co…Read More

  • Organic livestock farming is road to quality food

      AGRICULTURE SECTOR continues to play a central role in Pakistan’s economy accounting for over 21% of GDP and remains by far the largest employer, absorbing 45% of the country’s total labor force. In agriculture, livestock sector contributes approximately 53.2% of the agriculture value added and 11.4% to national GDP. Gross value addition of livestock at current factor cost has increased from Rs. 1304.6 billion to Rs. 1537.5 billion showing an increase of 17.8%. Intensive livestock farming is practiced in most of the countries including Pakistan which invo…Read More

  • Scope of ‘Halal Meat Industry’ of Pakistan

    HALAL IS a word of Arabic language which means lawful. It refers to the things or actions permitted by ‘Sharia law’ without punishment imposed on doer but it has got more practical significance in food industry. Being Muslims, it is our requirement to eat halal food and it has also been stressed heavily in the Holy Quran on consumption of food which fulfills certain criteria to be halal. According to a survey, the global Muslim population is around 1.83 billion which constitutes 30% of the total world population but more than 80% of the world Halal trade is occupied by Non-Musli…Read More

  • Rice-wheat cropping system issues and possible solutions

    RICE-WHEAT cropping system occupies over 24 Mha cropped area in Asia with 13.5 Mha area in South and fulfill need of millions of people. There are several conflicts in this production system such as time of sowing, edaphic, and labour etc. The farmers of rice-wheat zone mainly grow basmati rice, which matures late and delays the paddy harvest and planting of subsequent wheat crop. This late harvest of paddy and management of rice residues are the major hindrances in the seedbed preparation for the following crop. Any rainfall at that time may cause further delay in wheat sowing. After the rice harvesting, the puddle soil may require few more days to reach the workable soil moisture. …Read More

  • Home Generators: Solution or a cause…..

    Noise pollution, after hearing this first thing comes in your mind….”Aaah NOT again! all those same cause and its effects and all”…am I right ?? So here is a recent news. Noise pollution is updated with its new generation, as noise pollution that is considered to be caused by automobiles, industries etc. In short “old ways” now back in action with its latest version in Pakistan ……here presents “generators”. People think of generators as an effective power alternative but its environmental hazards are very high, more than that we can imagine. More often, noise polluti…Read More

  • Boron application - a patent approach to combat aerobic rice

    Food security is an important task to nourish the rapidly growing population of the world. However, increasing food demand and declining water availability are the challenges for food security. Water scarcity is perhaps the foremost limitation for sustainable crop production, rice being the most vulnerable. During transplanting and crop establishment, the fields remain flooded with 5–10 cm of water. As much water is used for wet soil preparation for rice production and also the huge losses occur by seepage, percolation and evaporation when the soil is flooded, the production of rice by this conventional method requires a large amount of water. To produce 1 kg of rice, …Read More

  • Physiological role of zinc and its deficiency consequences in plants

    Zinc is an essential micro‐nutrients required in optimum quantity to harvest the potential of the plants and to get the maximum yield. Its deficiency is a major yield reducing factor especially in the several Asian countries. Thirty percent soils and more than two billion people in the world are deficient in Zinc. The optimum status of zinc in soils is 1.17 ppm and about 70 per cent of cultivated area of Pakistan is considered as zinc deficient, and its deficiency is third most serious crop nutritional problem after N and P deficiency. Soils of Pakistan are generally alkaline in reaction, calcareous in nature which further reduces the availability of zinc which led to zinc deficiency i…Read More

  • Impact of heat & drought stress on physiological, biological processes in plants

    Heat and drought are the main abiotic constraints in harvesting potential yield of the crops on sustained basis. Climate change has a serious threat to cereal production levels required to feed future generations across the globe, hence create food insecurity. Global warming is predicted to increase the frequency and severity of ‘heat waves’ in crops growing areas in the world. Heat stress to varying degrees at different phonological stages causes a substantial yield reduction, primarily because of growth acceleration, reduction in duration of phasic developmental stages and carbon sta…Read More

  • Seed priming – a pragmatic approach to improve crop performance under salt stress

    Soil salinity is a serious problem in Pakistan that reduces the crops yield. In Pakistan, about 6.281 million hectares of land are salt-affected, out of which 1.89 million hectares are saline, 1.85 million hectares are permeable saline-sodic, 1.02 million hectares are impermeable saline-sodic and 0.028 million hectares are sodic in nature. It is estimated that out of 1.89 million hectares saline patches, 0.45 million hectares are in Punjab, 0.94 million hectares in Sindh and 0.5 million hectares in KPK. Salinity affects the seed germination either by creating an osmotic stress th…Read More

  • Biological nitrification inhibition – an efficient approach

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential element, needed by plants in highest quantity followed by carbon. It is crucial for the synthesis of proteins, DNA, RNA, chlorophyll, vitamins, plant hormones and many other biomolecules. Almost 20-50 g of nitrogen is taken up by the plant to synthesize 1 kg of dry matter thus crop yield is highly dependent on nitrogen supply. Annually 88 Mt of nitrogen fertilizer is utilized by agriculture sector. Agriculture sector is the main contributor towards the global warming due to emissions of nitric oxide (NO) and Nitrous oxide (N2O)…Read More