Power failure in Pakistan

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PAKISTAN IS the first Islamic and the seventh world nuclear state. It is unfortunately the top countries with worst load shedding schedules. Besides scheduled load shedding, often use to face even complete breakdown of electricity from Gilgit-Baltistan to Gawadar. Breakdown, from dawn to dusk.


But why dont we realize our responsibility and blame ourselves too for the present situation? Why dont we scrutinize ourselves? Perhaps we think we are not responsible for all these problems and power failures. How irrational we are as we are main cause of such damages. An individual may put the whole energy on risk. In this article, I will try to aware all consumers how they may save their state from such disasters.


In order to understand, one should aware with power transmission system on consumers end that includes complex meshes of wires, transformers and poles. If we observe on poles, we may see four wires containing three live whereas one neutral wire (sometimes five wires out of which one is ground wire and sometime three in which neutral wire is missing from station to transformer). Each of these live wires, one line or wire carries about 220V (usually provided to a consumer).


A domestic user requires one of these live lines and a neutral in order to access power. When one user uses this available power to drive an iron, fridge, bulbs or any device, he puts a corresponding load on it. This load causes the power loss in the lines and the core of transformers. This consumption or wastage of power is minimal when the same load is applied on the other two live wires or lines as well. On average, power transmission companies assumes the load of each home is equal. And correspondingly, in a specified area, each line is loaded with equal number of connections so that there may remain a balance in each line. If, in any case, the load on all the three lines goes unbalanced significantly, the energy wastage in the transmission lines and transformers increases drastically which is usually known as “line losses”.


As the line loses increases, the power available to consumers goes on decreasing. According to facts and figures provided by power generation and transmission companies in Pakistan, approximately 70-75 units are available to consumers out of 100 units generation. While the remaining is wasted as line loses. So, in short, to strengthen the power system it is necessary to decrease line loses which is possible only when all the lines contains equal loads. Although, better material of wires can also reduce this problem but this problem doesnt lie here in Pakistan. The material used is enough good. The main problem is unbalanced loads.


The question arises that how do the unbalanced loads we create? Simply the answer is, when one consumer demands a new electricity connection from company, the company queries about the load of the consumer (on the application form given from company). That is, if the load is less than one line average burden, he will be given single phase connection (one live wire and one neutral wire) but if the load exceeds than one line than he will be provided two phase or three phase connection (two lives one neutral or three lives one neutral) accordingly and his load will be equally distributed on each line. Conversely, if a single line is loaded with sufficiently higher load than its average then there will be an unbalance and line loses will be increased accordingly. And this is what usually happens over here in Pakistan.


The small scale industry of Pakistan, usually installed in homes, often run some heavy machinery on single phase connection. Rather the domestic users, after marketing of split air conditioners in local markets, load their lines then average load causing highly unbalancing conditions. This is only to avoid slightly more connection fees of companies. They may find their benefit in short run. But in long run, Pakistan faces a highly substantial difference of power generation versus consumption and eventually the inflation preys electricity also. And the one unit of generated power is now touching to about ten times as it was five years ago. On the same lines, the power system goes on weakening bearing such loses. The wires and the transformers are victimized. The voltage regulation of transformers runs short significantly and ultimately the power system trips, either of a street, a town, a city or the whole state.


So, the point to ponder is that we should aware public to put their contributions to save our system. No doubt, there is too much laziness, irresponsibility and disobedience from management side but we must do what we can other than blaming. If we carry on cursing system without our positive efforts, we will be continuously cursed by system.


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Published in: Volume 06 Issue 22

Short Link: http://www.technologytimes.pk/?p=13421