By Hafiz Wasi Muhammad Khan
IN LAST 65 years Pakistan managed to increase its population of large animals from 12 million to 65 million as per latest survey of animal population in the country. However, in terms of per animal production we observe a declining trend which was 10 liter/head in 1950 and now its 6.1 liter in cattle while around 6.9 liters in buffaloes/head. This is totally against the world animal production trend where no of animals are decreasing while production/animal is increasing. The main reasons for such pattern in Pakistan are as follows;
1. Farmers especially small scale or land less never considered their animals as tools of production but kept them as financial security
2. Large scale farmer concentrated his efforts towards cash crops and ignored livestock potential just keeping enough for his personal use and for his prestige
3. Traditional livestock farmers kept a few elite animals for just winning annual competition and never bothered about cost of production and further breeding and maintaining their offspring of such elite animals
4. As a result we got such trends mentioned above and livestock production sector could not become viable in economical terms and remained as financial security for land less and small farmers while for big land lords, just as a matter of prestige
As a result of strong focus on cash crops by the farmers, the following scenario is observed
1. Area under fodder production decreased from 17% down to 13% while population of animals kept on increasing
2. Fertile land around the city kept on shrinking due to expansion of urban development
3. Seasonal variation in fodder production also played its role in erratic supply of fodder for ever increasing population of our livestock thus decreasing production/head.
As a result our animals by large remained underfed therefore were never able to show their God given potential due to erratic feed supply which was never enough to feed them properly and remained bigger cause of keeping the animals underfed.
Scientists related to this field kept on trying to find different ways to improve this situation by suggesting so many alternatives such as
1. Increased use of crop residues such as wheat/paddy straws etc
2. Value addition of such crop residues by adding urea , molasses, CSL etc
3. Introducing high yielding fodder varieties
4. Introduction of industrial bye products like maize gluten and different meals etc
5. Preservation of fodder in the shape of hay and silage in pits or bunkers
However, recently two factors played an important role to see this sector purely in business terms and the factors are as follows
1. Increase in unemployment both in rural and urban youth thus creating poverty in the productive society
2. Induction of corporate sector in this business
To run this sector as business purely in economic terms it required to increase the productive potential of existing stock. Therefore even new farms being established even on smaller scale, priority is being given to purchase only to higher yielding animals both in buffalo and cattle available at the moment in the country.
Corporate sector initially started with local cross bred animals but ultimately a trend started to import exotic cows from abroad due to non availability of productive animals in big number from one place. They were fed up of buying animals one by one from market to market and they were afraid of introducing disease carriers animals by mistake in the stock which they had already collected.
The Punjab government realizing the potential of this sector decided to address the issues related to this emerging but having huge potential of this sector.
PLDDB took the lead in addressing the basic issue of this sector which is to assure food security for the animals meant for business. Therefore, the idea of producing baled silage production was introduced which will ensure quality feed in packed bales form having longer shelf life and can be easily transported in any part of the province to assure sustainability of this business.
This is the introduction of third generation of silage after the trench and bunker technique. It is produced by harvesting and chopping of standing maize crop from the field with the help of harvesters at app.65% moisture level and then packing of this chopped fodder in polythene sheet with the help of latest type of baler. Before packing this fodder is inoculated with proper inoculants, which shortens the ensiling process. As a result of this project many other private investors have started investing in this business of silage making on commercial basis and as a result of this revolutionary step following benefits to the dairy farmers and maize crop producers are listed below.
1. Baled silage is very easy to use for dairy farmers as it needs very less labor for handling and feeding to animals as compared to cut and carry system.
2. It is also very economical as the baled silage in spite of being full of nutrition will be available to livestock farmers almost at the same price which currently they are paying for the purchase of wheat straw.
3. For large scale farmers it serves as food security to maintain productivity level of their animals throughout the year which always remain a limiting factor for the success of livestock.
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