Self-sufficiency in energy is the assurance to excel any countrys economy. According to an international analysis, the oil and gas reserves will get finished by the second half of this current century. For that reason, to attain self-sufficiency, alternative energy resources are being explored. There are 929 billion tons approx. coal reserves available in the world whose 40 per cent is used to produce the electricity. As per an estimate, third biggest coal reserve of 185 billion ton exists in Pakistan which is equivalent to 400 billion barrels of oil. In other words, our coal reserves are equivalent to Saudi Arabia and Irans combined oil reserves.
As per research, $50 per barrel price gives the value of our coal reserve as high as $30 trillion which goes to 187 times high as compared to the current GDP of Pakistan. The current government has taken appropriate actions to produce the electricity from Thar coal and other resources during the three to five coming years. Recently, the Sindh government has contracted with a multi-national firm and work has been started to produce the 1000 mega watt electricity from the coal.
These power generating projects will save huge foreign currency which is spent on the import of oil.
The second largest oil producing country Iran too is producing electricity from coal. China, in this time is producing 75 per cent electricity with coal and is ready to help us produce electricity with coal. The strong lobby of multi-national oil companies didnt let the plans of generating the electricity from wind and coal come true.
In the world level, the share of electric produced by the gas is 19 per cent while in Pakistan 45 per cent, nuclear energys share in the world total energy is 16 per cent while in Pakistan only 2 per cent, hydro-generated electricitys share into the worlds total energy share is 16 per cent but in Pakistan 3.3 per cent and from oil in world only 7 per cent but in Pakistan is 16 per cent. Poland and Germany produce the electricity more than 80 per cent from coal. Likewise, South Africa 93 per cent, India 78.3 per cent, Australia 77 per cent, China 72 per cent, Germany 52 per cent, America 49 per cent, Denmark 47.3 per cent and UK 32.9 per cent produce the energy from coal. Pakistan produces only 200 mega watt from coal which is 7 per cent of total energy production while the energy produced by coal should be up to 25 per cent.
An important and natural resource of alternative energy is wind. Minimum 13 kilometer per hour wind blowing is supposed to be sufficient. By luck, we have the points for the production of wind energy which is available into the coastal areas of Karachi, Thatta, Jiwani and Baluchistans coastal belt and other areas situated in northern areas and Azad Kashmir. This time from wind Germany 18000 mega watts, USA 7000 mega watts, and Spain 8000 mega watts are producing the energy.
Wind energy is of importance as it does not create any environmental pollution at all. Solar energy is one of the cheapest and important ways to produce the energy. According to scientists, the energy received from the sun in one hour is more than the whole worlds total produced energy in a year. As per analysis if only half per cent of desert land is used for solar energy it would cater the energy demand for this entire world. Pakistan has much potential for solar energy because Pakistan is receiving 19 mega joules per square meter in a year through which 90 per cent of rural area can be provided the electricity.
Likewise, geysers run by solar energy can reduce the demand of natural gas in the Northern Areas. Nuclear energy is also a cheap resource to attain the electricity. We are producing only 462 mega watts of electricity from nuclear resources which is only 2 per cent of our total energy production by alternative resources.
In the contrary, in the world 16 per cent electricity is being produced by nuclear energy. Our natural gas reserves are finishing rapidly so, therefore, it is necessary that electricity be produced by alternative resources and dependency over the natural gas could be lessened. If just 50 per cent of alternative resources available in Pakistan is used, then we can export the additional energy to neighbour states. No doubt self-sufficiency in energy is the first key in attaining the country-wide economical and social development.