Mango (botanical name; Magnifera indica) is the evergreen world popular fruit tree due to delicious, nutritious and good taste and grown since more than 4000 years ago in the tropical areas of the world. In Pakistan, mango cultivation area is about 93.42 thousand hectares and production is 915.3 thousand tons. Mango growing districts in Punjab are Bahawalpur, Multan, Muzaffargarh, and Rahim Yar khan. There are many variations depending upon variety on an average dry stone weight that comprises 10 per cent of fruit weight, while kernel makes the 75 per cent of seed weight. On average, seed contains 10 per cent oil content. In India it has been estimated that some 30,000 tons of oil could be extracted from 4 million tons of the total annual harvest of 7 million tons. Some mango kernel oil has been commercially extracted. Among mango producing countries, Pakistan is the 4th largest in the world followed by Mexico, India Brazil. In Pakistan, it is mostly produced in Punjab and Sindh province. Mango orchards are cultivated on 0.16 million hectares and its total production is 1.75 million ton in Pakistan. There are over 150 distinct Pakistani mango varieties. Punjab holds 67 per cent of the total area and produces 80 per cent of Pakistans mango. Yield, which averages 10.7 tons/ha and varies from 10-20 ton/ha, places Pakistan 13th in the world. During 2011-12, the total production of mangoes in Punjab was 1.304 million tons.
Mango seeds have a hard fibrous shell that contains a kernel, which is rich in oil 6-16 per cent, Dry matter (DM) of the kernel and starch ranges from 40-50 per cent. Seeds are bulky having fiber content >20 per cent. The kernels can be assumed as an energy feed and a valuable feedstuff, although it is poor in protein <10 per cent DM. In many animal species, the use of mango kernel has been successfully investigated but it is still unclear that whether they are part of actual livestock diets. Mango oil is an oil fraction obtained during the processing of mango butter. Basically it is seed oil, extracted from stone of the Magnifera indica. At room temperature, mango oil is a semi-solid but it melts on contact with skin, making it appealing for baby creams, sun care balms, hair products and other moisturizing products. Its melting point is 32-42oC with a soft yellow color.
The kernels are edible having protein content of up to 9 per cent and are eaten at the time of food security in many developing countries. Oil is commercially extracted from the kernels. It is also used as a cocoa butter substitute. The residual of oil extraction is used as animal feed. If stored cool, its shelf life is 3-4 years. Mostly mango oil is refined and during this process the therapeutic quality is altered. Mango stones should be dried under sun that reduces the moisture content of kernel from about 48 per cent to 13 per cent. Good drying is necessary to avoid the growth of fungus Aspergillus Niger and to prevent the development of FFA (free fatty acid) rancidity. FFA levels in raw stones can rise from 2 per cent to 7 per cent after 20 days and to 46 per cent after 120 days.
Before oil extraction the mango kernels are sieved that removes foreign matter and then it is broken in a hammer mill. By use of a roller breaker, the broken kernels are further reduced in size. The material is subjected to heat to soften it and finally fed to flaking rollers. The final flakes have moisture content up to 10-12per cent which is extracted with hexane and that should be very thin. Mango kernel oil is pale yellow in color. Climatic condition and variety can vary the fatty acid composition. It comprises Palmitic acid 5.1 to 8.0 per cent, Stearic acid 42 to 48 per cent, Oleic acid 35 to 42 per cent, Linoleic Acid 3 to 4 per cent, Linoleic Acid 3 to 4 per cent.
Mango butter is semi-solid at room temperature. Its melting point ranges from32-42oC . Due to its high oxidative stability, it is commonly used in the cosmetic and food industries. The unique properties of Bulk Mango Butter along with the butters high level of non-saponifiables make it a very effective emollient. It is a great significant for products that target dry, damaged, and aging skin.
It can help to get rid of dandruff. Tooth powder can be prepared by mango seed oil. This powder helps to keep your teeth healthy. Combine with honey; it is used as treatment for diarrhea. It also helps obese people to lose their excess weight. It also lowers cholesterol level and improves blood circulation, so indirectly it lowers the blood sugar and C-reactive protein levels. The risk of cardiovascular diseases and hypertension is minimized by moderate consumption of mango seed oil and its low amount in our daily diet can keep control heart problems and high blood pressure.
There are many constraints in the improvement of mango kernal oil production in Pakistan, such as: Unavailability of proper facilities for researchers to produce good quality root stock and scion of mango, middle level farmers have no awareness about the beneficial aspect of mango kernal oil, improper use of production technology by farmers and researcher, Poor implementation of post-harvest techniques.
It is concluded that there is no extraction of mango seed oil in Pakistan due to lack of awareness and no researcher work in mango oil extraction. In mango seed 10per centoil is present, in Pakistan total production is 915.3 thousand tons and 91.53 thousand tons oil can be extracted from it. This oil will be a good source of foreign exchange earnings and also helps to balance our imports. In world there are following companies involved in mango seed oil extraction i.e. Mango butter company India, World mango companies, Company from India, Organic skin care products, Karnataka company, Hyderabad company, company with biotechnology and in Pakistan no oil extraction plant is working.