HUMAN INTERVENTION in nature has resulted in toppling of natural equilibrium in many ways. The deforestation, climate change phenomenon, water and air pollution, depletion of ozone layer, increased catastrophic events occurring at uncertain time are few of the hostile realities that are continuously hovering over the head of mankind these days.
The air pollution is one of the noxious kinds of pollution that have number of adverse implications. It is mainly the fusion of solid particles and gases in the air. In discrete words, air pollution occurs when the air contains gases in extremely high amounts in air and exceeds safe limits. The high amount of carbon emissions from vehicles, industries, dust particles, pollens become suspended in air.
The sources of air pollution can be classified into five major categories i.e. stationery sources, mobile sources, agricultural sources, and natural sources. The stationery sources are also called as point sources in which the origin of the pollutants remain stationed at a point and is incapable of movement. These include factories, dry cleaners, power plants, and degreasing operations.
Mobile source of air pollution refers to a source that is capable of moving under its own power. In general, mobile sources imply “on-road” transportation, which includes vehicles such as cars, sport utility vehicles, and buses. In addition, there is also a “non-road” or “off-road” category that includes gas-powered lawn tools and mowers, farm and construction equipment, recreational vehicles, boats, planes, and trains.
Mobile sources also one of prime contributors in air pollution. Mobile sources refer to the on-road transportation and moving cars, vehicles, and mowers, farm and construction equipment, recreational vehicles, boats, planes, and trains etc. fall into this category.
Agricultural operations and pesticides are also one of the air pollution sources. The animals and agricultural are related to somehow in current farming techniques in rural areas. The animals which are restricted to barn instead of field grazing produce large amount of manure which is responsible for emission of ammonia in air. The ammonia often emits from place of animal keeping, manure storage areas, or from land where manure is applied. There is a growing need to train farmers and agriculturists in order to avoid misapplication of fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides that result in aerial drift and heavy air pushes the particles thus keeping them suspended in air.
The natural sources entail the phenomenon such as dust storms, magnetic storms, hurricanes, volcanic ash, forest and prairie fires can emit large quantities of pollutants; the vegetation naturally emit VOCs which are oxidized and form aerosols that can cause a blue haze; and dust storms can create large amounts of particulate matter. Wild animals in their natural habitat are also considered natural sources of pollution.
The air pollution can either be outdoor or indoor. The components of outdoor air pollution include the smog, particulates, acid rain and Greenhouse Gases (GHG).
The primary mechanism of air pollution involves formation of VOC, biological generation of VOC, formation of liquid aerosol droplets, anthropomorphic generation of particulate aersols, biological generation of aerosol, particulate aersol formation. The condensation, absorption, and nucleation are the steps of secondary mechanism.
The air pollution accounts for various toxic diseases including skin cancer to humans. It deeply affects the biodiversity on earth. Apart from that the colossal hindrance in transportation due to formation of smog, haze is not only limited to land drive but also in aerial journey. The environment concerns become thicker due to the growing air pollution. The industrial protocols must be strictly adapted along with making masses aware of the air pollution thus molding their lifestyles by developing air security ethics, restriction of sources by opting out the alternatives are few of the opportunities to be credited from persisting situation.
The governments, policy makers, experts, journalists and all the stakeholders must be convolved in order to make air pollution resilient policies. Furthermore, the governments and relevant organizations must initiate integrated efforts in the region because air pollution is a global challenge that needs joint and collaborative efforts to effectively combat it.
The worldwide agencies working on air pollution are alarmed by the situation and a need for producing eminent coverage to air pollution issues is imperative to make masses not only aware but also make them resilient to the conditions and enhance their preparedness to cope with the likely air pollution driven challenges.