Biochar is a specialized form of charcoal because it is rich in charcoal product, porous in nature and is in fine grained form. It is used to enhance the agricultural yield.Biochar is a fractious organic carbon compound and it is stabilized. Through the thermal decomposition of organic material, Biochar is made. Pyrolysis is the process by which biomass is treated under absence or low amount of oxygen between 300 and 1000 °C, after heating the carbon the product that is left behind is called Biochar.
In Pakistan mostly people depend on agriculture and the soil condition become weaker day by day due to different environmental issues like application of insufficient nutrients and also by using toxic chemicals that deplete the soil fertility so, by getting demandable yield we have to first improve soil condition in such a way that soil fertility improved in sustainable manner.As a result of vegetation fires and historic soil management practices biochar is found in soils around the world. In the Amazon (terra preta) intensifier study of biochar-rich dark earths has led to a wider appreciation of biochars unique properties as a soil enhancer. In areas where soils are severely depleted, scarce organic resources, and inadequate water and chemical fertilizer supplies, Biochar can be an important tool to increase food security and cropland diversity.
Biochar is best at that condition because it has both short-term as well as long-term effect on soil. The ash content of Biochar is providing nutrient in soil this is short term effect, the long term benefits of Biochar is that it increased the retention of nutrients and water in soil and as a result crop growth increased.
Therefore, adding Biochar soil fertilizer efficiency can be increased and crop absorbed nutrient in greater amount due to that way growth of crop and as well as yield also increased. But it is remember that Biochar itself is not a fertilizer it just improves the overall quality and health of the soil.
Beneficial microbial activity can be increased by the application ofBiocharin the soil and it can contribute to maximum crop yields. Biochar will affect nutrient cycling processes because by adding Biochar in the soil it darken the soil colour and dark colour itself have a characteristic that it absorbed more heat ant they may be depend on water content and plant cover.
Biochar is reported to increase crop production by moral excellence of its highly porous structure due to its porosity it absorbed nutrients inside the particles and retain them. It improves soil structure and as e result earthworm populations enhanced and help in microbial process so, due to microbial activity decomposition occurand soil organic matter are produced and that organic matter is available to plants. Biochar does not need to be replaced each year because it does not decompose promptly.
By providing groovier amount of mineral to the roots of plants, it increased the mineral retention in soil,because Biochar has a weak cation exchange capacity due to its that ability they help to keep dissolved nutrient minerals that being leached out from the soil by irrigation or rain. The soil PH can also be maintain and neutralized by using Biochar. Leaching of nitrogen into the ground water and as well as possible emission of nitrous oxide can be reduced by the use of Biochar.
Biochar can be used in different way:
• It could be used as a soil amendment.
• During composting it could be used as an additive.
• The sprinkling application of Biochar could be used at plants, vegetables, trees and shrubs because due to its sprinkling application transplanting shock could be minimized.
• It could be used as a seed compost ingredient.
• For shallow rooted plants like for grasses and cacao trees, it could be used as a top dressing.
Almost any type of soil can be improved by using Biochar. But the areas that have very low rainfall and nutrients amount present in soil is very low will be improved mostly by addition of Biochar.