Pakistan is a developing country. With the increasing population, the demand for edible oil increases day by day. In Pakistan cotton sunflower, rapeseed-mustard and canola are considered as major oilseed crops. Pakistan has been constantly and chronically deficient in its production. The country produce only 30% of edible oil and about 70% of the domestic requirements are met through import. Camelina is an important oil seed crop, which have high percentage of oil contents. Its oil is beneficial for human health as compare to cotton and mustard oil, because cotton contain Gossypol mater and mustard oil contain Erucic acid these both matters are harmful for human health but Camelina oil contain omega-3 fatty acid that is not common in other vegetables oil. However, efforts have been made to increase its local production.
Camelina sativais a short season (85-100 days) flowering plant and belongs to family Brassicaceae. In English its usually known as Camelina, gold-of-pleasure, and also called false flax.
Traditionally, it has been cultivated as an oilseed crop to produce vegetable oil and animal feed. According to archeological records, in Europe during the Bronze Age Camelina was first grown. Due to its Roman name Gold of Pleasure, from 1940s it was widely cultivated in Russia and Eastern Europe. Due to increase in production of rapeseed/canola in Europe Camelina production was declined. There is presently renewed interest in Camelina because it contains high omega-3 content of the oil that is beneficial for health.
Camelina sativa (CS) is a cruciferous plant. At temperate climate zone its production is well adopted. It is generally grown twice in a year, in milder climate it grown as a winter annual and as an oil seed crop it can grown as an early summer annual.
Camelina plant can be grown under different climatic and soil conditions with the exception of organic and clay soils. The cultivation of the crop is simple and environmentally friendly. Under favorable condition Camelina seed germinate within 3-6 days. During the initial period of growth the above ground part of the plant consists of a rosette of leaves. The subsequent phase of growth, flower buds and axial branches bearing flowers develop from the apex.
The florescence of Camelina is present in cluster form its flowers color is pale yellow and its diameter is about 5-7 mm. Its flowers are autogenous in nature. Its pear shaped capsule thats diameter is (45 mm) and contain 15 oval-shaped yellow seeds. After ripening, the seed colour changed from yellow to dark-brown. The weight seeds depend upon variety, growth conditions and nutrition.
• The Camelina seed contain 38-43% oil and 27-32% protein.
• The Camelina seed oil contains about 64% polyunsaturated fatty acid, 30% monounsaturated fatty acid, and 6% saturated fatty acids.
• Due to the presence of vitamin E in Camelina oil it act as a natural antioxidant. Approximately 110 mg/100 g vitamin E is present in its oil.
• Its oil is well suited for used as cooking oil. It contains almond like aroma and flavour.
• The growing of Camelina has increase for its potential as a biofuel and bio lubricant.
• The biofuel that obtained from the seed of Camelina is used to produce electricity.
• About80% carbon emission can be reduced by using Camelina-based jet fuel.
• Camelina cake can be used to enhance the quality of chicken, cattle and pig feeds.
• Fish oil in diets can be completely replaced with Camelina oil because it contain sustainable lipid source.
• Camelina meal contains more than 40% protein and low glucose inolate content as compare to soybean and canola meal.
• Camelina can be used as a companion crop.
• In Agricultural the oil of Camelina has been used successfully as an adjuvant in spraying applications.
• Its oil used in cosmetics, skin care products, soft detergents and soaps.
• Its oil acts as an emollient because it moisturized the skin.
• It can be used as a hot oil treatment for air.
• It also used to boost up the immune system of body.