How we define climate change?
First, we discuss what is climate? Day and night fluctuations in temperature, atmosphere pressure, wind and moisture in an area over an extended period of time. It contains moisture in air, temperature, rainfall, snowfall, wind and times of years. Climate plays role in forming bionetworks. It is a clear cut fact that economies and cultures of human beings are dependent on climate. But now a days climate is not as it was to be. Climate is altering with disturbing impacts. This change is fast and never seen as rapid in past two hundred years. Animal and plants may adapt to changing climate but cannot cope with rapid change in climate. Almost all systems of life are connected to climate any change in it may disturb related aspect like standards of living of people, plants and animals density. For instance, variation in patterns of rain or temperatures can disturb plants blooms, pollination and fruit setting or when insect pest have their full swing attack.
CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENVIRONMENT
Because of climate change environment is not going to be suitable to for life. Cryosphere which is in the form of frozen water is melting now. Melting sheet of ice at polar region funds the sea level to rise. Thing also contributes toward more dark ocean waters responsible to more sunlight absorption than ice. This thing makes the ocean to absorb more heat and give rise heavier clouds. Weather at the both ends in the sense of heat and cold is going to be more extreme with every passing year. Ice can reflect light back to space but the ocean cannot do this, they absorb more and more heat. In the meantime amount of carbon dioxide is increasing in the ocean which makes it more acidic. Now ocean is 40% more acidic than it was to be. It is observed that coral reef is more sensitive to both temperature and pH. Acidic condition of sea lets the calcium to deposit less. Heat stresses kill algae that feed coral reef. Milder winter time and extended summer make the conditions favorable for insects and other pests to attack forests and crops.
CLIMATE CHANGE IS MAIN RISK TO AGRICULTURE
Shifting of weather is serious issue which is much harder to tackle with. Unpredicted water supplies through rain fall adds to the farmer problem. There is competition with unexpected attacks of disease, weeds and insect pest which are responsible for low yield in crops. Floods are actually out puts of global warming and climate change which put the agriculture produce to destructive level. When agriculture suffer it means humanity suffer as we cannot produce carbohydrates, fats and protein in factories.
HAZARDS TO HUMAN HEATH
Hot atmosphere boost up chemical reactions that results in the formation of ground level ozone which is known in the name of smog. This smog badly irritates lungs and major cause of asthma. Smoke from wildfire furthermore reduces the air quality. If it continues, heat waves during summer season will result more deaths and their number will raise years after years. Hot freshwater harbors pathogens easier and pollute drinking water. Ozone depletion along the weather extreme may make the world little bit harder place to live in. There are three possible ways in which human health can be affected.
1- Direct- life threatening weather occasions and altered environment
2- Indirect- permanent threat being destroyed or uncertainty about life and future
3- Psychological- adjustment after disaster, migration, drought and related conflicts severely affect psychological health of community.
HOW TO STOP CLIMATE CHANGE?
We can stop or slow down the climate change. Few steps should be taken like,
1. Use fuel efficient or small vehicles
2. Use bicycle or walk to reduce CO2 emission in the environment
3. We must use energy efficiently switch off electrical appliances when not in use
4. Replace light bulb with fluorescent or LED
5. Grow and buy organic food
6. Make less use of processed food
7. Dairy and meat products contribute to emission of greenhouse gas up to 18%
8. Waste and pollutants must be managed wisely
9. Re forestation will have reverse effect to deforestation. Thats why we must cover the land with trees and other plant. Deforestation is a serious cause of climate change if we control over it we can avoid number of hazards of climate change.
If we cannot stop climate change there is another option we can slow down this change so that life may adapt or evolve itself with changing environment as adaption or evolutionary process takes time.
The authors are associated with the Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. They can reached at <email@example.com> and <firstname.lastname@example.org>