In Pakistan after wheat crop, rice is an important crop by reason of its significance as country’s second biggest essential food crop and is an exportable item. In Pakistan, it is a second most important staple food and it is also the third-biggest cash crop after wheat and cotton.
As indicated by the Economic Survey of Pakistan 2014-15, the sown area for rice in the year was 2.891 million hectares an increase of 3.6 percent over previous year’s 2.789 million hectares. The production of the crop in 2014-15 was estimated to be 7.005 million tons, showing a growth of 3.0 percent over relating time of a year ago’s yield which was 6.798 million tons.Rice generation expanded because of more area bring under farming timely accessibility of water and more land area under energetic yielding hybrid rice.
Rice yield in Pakistan is low when contrasted with other rice developing countries. In subsequent, there is no knowing for further improvement in rice area; henceforth vertical increment in rice generation is basic with expansion in yields. To execute this target, conventional breeding strategies should be supplemented with the originative systems.Hybrid rice conception is one among these strategies.
In 1926 Jones was the first person in the USA, who has been reported hybrid vigor in rice. China reported the effective advancement and development of hybrid rice in 1976.
In 2003 cross breed rice seed was presented in Pakistan and around then the cultivator was not avid to accept this change for the reason that because of lack of knowingness regarding modern agricultural engineering.
Hybrid rice is original posterity or first filial generation of a cross between inbred lines with various genotypes. Hybrid is unique since they express what is called “heterosis” or hybrid vigor. The thought is that in the event that you cross two parents which are hereditarily not capable of being gotten from each other, the offspring will be predominant, especially as far as yield.
For hybrid rice seed production three line system, cytoplasmic genic male sterility, are adapted. These three lines are line (A) cytoplasmic male sterile line with no restorer gene, line (B) maintainer line also with no restorer gene and line (R) fertile line with restorer gene. Line (B) and line (R) are kept in good condition by selfing, while line (A) and F1 seeds are created with exertion to increase the allogamy (cross-fertilization) in the planting area.
Actually, a smallholder attains 80 to 100 mounds per acre yield subsequently sowing hybrid rice seed.In a few region of the country, smallholder has accomplished a yield as high as 110 to 120 mounds for each acre.
At that time, approximately 800 recorded officially companies are functional. Some private sector rice research seed companies’ e.g. Guard, Pioneer, Bayer Crop Science and Auriga Group of companies are working on hybrid rice seed production. These companies have also developed their own hydride rice seed. Rice hydride varieties namely PHB71, Arize-403 & Arize-H64 and Almas produced by Pioneer, Bayer Crop Science and Auriga Group of companies respectively. But due to the broad discrepancy in soil and climate condition in China and Pakistan, private seed companies bought rice hybrid (japonica types) from China.
Hybrid rice varieties have a potential to make bigger the yield per unit area.They also supply an instrument to change the development practices at the level of the producer.In the rural region, hybrid rice varieties supply more opportunity in seed production. Although, hybrid rice varieties have some drawbacks like poor cooking quality & short grain.
At that time, in Pakistan, the average yield is 24-26 mounds per acre, which is most reduced as a contrast with different countries of the world. So that, the government of Pakistan should support to research institutions and private companies which are showing interest in research in the development of hybrid rice.