Maillard reaction is non- enzymatic browning between carbonyl group of carbohydrates and amine group of proteins in heated or processed food products under high temperature. Acrylamide first declared to be a food-borne carcinogen by Swedish National Food Administration in 2002 as it reported in many carbohydrates- based food products like potato chips, bread, coffee beans.
According to European Food Safety Authority Acrylamide, does not exist in the raw materials of food products. But, when heating these materials under certain critical temperature i.e. above 120co especially carbohydrates containing foods produce acrylamide through the reaction between reducing sugars and free amino acid especially asparagine (Stadler et al., 2002, Mottram et al., 2002).
Granvogl and Schiberle, (2007) stated that during reaction upon enzymatic decarboxylation of free asparagine an intermediate is formed i.e. 3-APA and produce acrylamide with heating even without carbonyl source. Enzymatic decarboxylation of asparagine may also result in acrylamide (Zyzak et al., 2003). Stadler and Scholz (2004) described the acrylamide formation through acrolein and acrylic acid. Casado et al., (2013) declared through their findings that in sterilized olives peptides/proteins are precursor for acrylamide formation. European Food Safety Authority (efsa) in June 2015 issued a report in which mentioned the overall sources, causes, and effects of acrylamide on the human health. According to WHO (2010) potential risk assessment strategies must be improved to explore the nutritional and biological linkages of acrylamide. Acrylamide is mainly formed in food i.e. Baked, Grilled, Roasted, usually absent in boiled and microwaved food (Fogliano, 2014). In March 2010, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) reported about the risk and hazard dose-response assessment to lethal activity of acrylamide through conducting tests on animals to obtain references values of carcinogenic activity for humans in multiple tissues and degenerative peripheral nerve damage. Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) revealed through the series of testing process that acrylamide intake relation with cancer development is inconsistent. (BfR, 2011). Health Canada in 2012 presented a detailed acrylamide dietary exposure and its assessment to cause chronic cancer through series of observations showed that acrylamide is a potential health concern (Health Canada, 2012). In 2013, The Danish National Food Institute (DTU) reported that depicts about contaminants of food observed for the period 2004–2011. In this period Danish population’s dietary intake especially for those products that are potential source of acrylamide was observed with the conclusion that acrylamide is significant for food safety (DTU, 2013). The Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) revealed in 2014 through a comprehensive report on 24th Australian Total Diet Study (TDS), in which acrylamide also considered through research and experiment’s by observing the behavior of various food and beverages as dietary intake source of acrylamide and declared that acrylamide is a genotoxic and carcinogenic for human health (FSANZ, 2014). In 2011, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) explored that AA is human carcinogen through logical anticipation (NTP, 2011). The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) categorized acrylamide as Group 2A carcinogen i.e. may be carcinogen to human health (IARC, 1994). Acrylamide when ingested it is absorbed in Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) and metabolized. These metabolites moves to all major body organs and parts especially Glycidamide. Glycidamide reacts with DNA to form DNA adducts and is more reactive to DNA than acrylamide. Characterization of glycidamide-DNA adducts (Beland, 2015) to check its reactivity. Several Mitigation strategies for acrylamide are proposed and tested by various researchers as it mainly evident in potato and cereal based products but less in dairy products. Capuano and Fogliano (2010) described the feasible mitigation approaches like varietal improvement, recipe modification, and addition of certain proteins, amino acids, acidulants, enzymes, cyclodextrin, natural antioxidants or antioxidant extracts etc. Replacement of reducing sugars with sucrose and of ammonium bicarbonate with sodium bicarbonate).
Alteration in process like change in baking and frying time and temperature as well as pH level of various ingredients of the products. Up to now, most beneficial and authentic tool to control acrylamide is addition of an enzyme asparaginase (Capuano and Fogliano, 2010). Its main activity is to catalyze the hydrolysis of asparagine in aspartic acid and ammonia hence reducing the precursor asparagine concentration.