Tumour are abnormal growth of the cell or uncontrolled division of cell that serve up no function. There are two types of brain tumour; one is benign tumour and other is malignant tumour. Malignant tumour is commonly known as cancer and can move across the body.
A central nervous system in our body is the combination of brain and spinal cord. The multifarious organ – brain have more than trillion neurons. These neurons make us able to underhand memories and comprehend. Brain has three parts; the forebrain, the cerebellum, and the brain stem.
Forebrain houses cerebrum and the diencephalon these are responsible for pain, emotion, temperature, stress learning memory, and regulation of behaviors. Brain stem conveys information coordination between spinal cord, forebrain, and cerebellum. And also manage the sleep period, heart function, breathing, movement etc.
Brain tumour its types and symptom
The whole body is consisted of cell same is the case with the brain. There are two types of cells; nerve cells (for signal transduction between brain and nerve card), and Glial cells (support to neuron cell by insulating, feeding and giving them a structural support).
Primary brain tumour
It is caused from the cell that are placed within the brain. These cells are not like other metastatic cells which travel from other part of body into brain. Due to uncontrolled division of brain cell they can move a little within the brain, but can’t move outside. Usually their movement is relatively uncommon. It can only be seen in the fourth or fifth in the leading cancer list.
Having different pathological types, the brain tumours are generally divide into two types; benign and malignant.
Benign tumour are those that are not cancerous, they grow slowly, more amenable to surgical or other treatments. Malignant tumour grow faster, they invade local structure, and tend to chemotherapy and radiation treatment.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and malignant form of primary brain tumour. Brain cancer not moves to Central Nervous System (CNS).
Primary brain cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in kids. Cancer death rate in adults age 15 to 34, it gets 3rd position.
The National Cancer Institute, USA, estimates that there were 23,880 new cancer cases (brain and other nervous system cancer) in 2018, which is about 1.4% of all new cancer case. And there were 16,830 deaths, which is 2.8% of all cancer deaths, across USA.
Symptom of primary brain tumour
The symptoms include: headache, neck pain, several vomiting, vision decrease, arms, and legs weakness. The patient doesn’t feel good physically.
Mostly, in the condition of primary brain tumour, it is stapled by excision of the brain. For surrounding and support the surgical excision are changing rapidly. There are augmenting therapies such as intraoperative MRIs is available for treatment.
This also include Radiotherapy and chemotherapy. After surgery this have significant advantages to primary brain tumour.
With the help of advancement in Nano-biotechnology coupled with nanoparticles the glioma antigens (GAA), encourages a precise immune system and set up a novel method of immunotherapy for GBM.
Secondary brain tumour
Secondary brain tumour or Metastatic Brain tumour is the most common form of brain tumour as compare to primary brain tumour. It is the malignant tumour that metastasized to the brain. As in breast cancer and lung cancer that are reported to brain metastasized.
Most noteworthy, the secondary brain tumour has higher rate in developing countries than in developed countries.
Report shows that there are about 200,000 new cases of brain metastases in the USA. One survey report revealed that about 24% of patients with Metastasis progress develop from Breast cancer.
Symptoms of secondary brain tumour
Tiredness, pain in the abdomen at the liver side, sickness, swollen in abdomen, skin color get yellowing or itchy , having problem in balancing body and coordination, memory problem, and problem during speaking are symptoms of secondary brain tumour.
To diagnose secondary brain tumour, several tests like brain CT (computerized tomography) or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan is essential. In case of tumour, biopsy is the option.
chest and abdomen CT scan CT of abdomen and chest if there is any primary source so possible to biopsy ,CTCA has full available treatment for metastasis surgical resection with biopsy or full resection surgery ,
Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy, along with hormone therapy significantly help in secondary brain tumour.
Research in Pakistan
In Pakistan, report shows that from 1994 to 2015 there were total 71,284 cancer case out of which 4,143 were positive for oral cancer. One more study represent that in 2016 there were total 10,000 cases and 1,021 were positive cases. In case of prostate cancer: in 2016 there were 4,887 cases, out of which 237 were positive.
Another study about breast cancer revealed that in 2015 there were total 49,765 case, out of which 11,848 were positive to breast cancer. According to Pakistan Health Research Council (PHRC); there are about 148,000 new cancer cases report annually, and about 100,000 person die due to cancer. Oral, breast, blood/bone marrow cancers are the most common cancers in Pakistan. Brain cancer is responsible for only 2% of all cancer deaths in Pakistan.
Brain cancer is mostly reported in women at an average of 4.8%. In 2016, a total of 7,046 neoplasms were registered, of which 459 were having benign and 6,587 having malignant cancer. Reflecting an increase of about 19% of new cancer registrations from previous year 2015.
Research centres in Pakistan
At Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital & Research Centre (SKMCH) in year 2017 there were 9,004 new registrations and 243,663 outpatient visits.
The other top cancer hospital are Bait-ul–Sukoon Cancer Hospital, Karachi, KIRAN Cancer Hospital, Karachi, Nuclear Medicine, Oncology and Radiotherapy Institute (NORI), Islamabad, and Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology (INMOL), Lahore. There are 18 PAEC hospitals all over Pakistan, providing cancer treatment.
Unfortunately, in Pakistan, central registration system for cancer patients is missing. There is dire need for public awareness as well. As Pakistan is the 5th largest population; and cancer patients are increasing, the need of a most modern research centre is increasing.
Globally nano-oncology is getting space in the field of cancer treatment. Now cancer patients are treating with more accuracy. While, chemotherapy and radiotherapy damage other body cell, it is a precise treatment. Moreover, nanocapsule and nano robots for the treatment of cancer are also in demand to uplift the cancer research in Pakistan.
The author is research scholar at School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, China.