Quality of seed is maintain by nature through genetic make-up. It can also maintain to get maximum potential by protecting it during harvesting, threshing, processing and storage period.
If poor seed handling then deterioration of seed quality will occur and ultimately seed loss will occur in the form of viability loss. If viability loss then seed vigor will also and will give short germination and emergence in laboratory and field conditions. So it will not meet to the quality of that prescribed crop.
Of late, some physical as well as chemical work is done with seed when stored in store house to reduce or overcome problems and that technique is enhancement of seed quality. So seed enhancement technique helps to improve physical and mechanical properties, dormancy breakage, induce germination and to make stress tolerance.
Similarly, seed enhancement techniques helps to gain potential from seeds. Mostly these type of techniques are used in vegetable seeds and also in agronomic crops. In pulses, seed enhancement techniques are used to observe germination, viability, vigor and to save resources.
Objectives of seed enhancement technique are given below as;
• To reduce seed rate as germination is improve.
• Chemicals those help in stress tolerance and resistant.
• Technique facilitates in seed planting.
• Nutrients are deliver with seed at sowing time as coating is done.
• Direct sowing of small seeded crops as vegetables.
• Less exposure to toxicity.
• Helps the seedling to become dormant to weeds for nutrient competition.
Seed Enhancement Technique in pulses
There are a no. of techniques for seed enhancement which are given below;
A controlled hydration process permitting pre-germinative activities to proceed followed by re-drying before radical emergence.
Types of priming
4. Hormonal priming.
It is a simple and low cost technique. In this imbibation occur in pulse seed and just sprouting start and seed is taken out from water and re dry so that emergence can controlled.
Properties of primed seeds are given below as;
Last activity is radical emergence in germination process. Redicle emergence required water content, when water content is limited all chemical process can occur instead of radical emergence.
Priority is not radical emergence, seed should be water stress tolerant and moisture is reduced by drying. After seed drying, these seeds can be stored for long time or up to sowing.
There are following changes which occur in primed seeds are;
• It repairs
i. Structural damage.
ii. Genetic damage.
iii. Imbibational damage.
• Activate the enzyme.
• Start hydrolysis of stored food.
• Early DNA replication start.
• Stress protein are expressed.
Benefits of seed priming
• Early germination and faster.
• Temperature range increase for germination.
• Economical yield increase.
• Better performance against stress condition.
Seed priming reduces the time to radical emergence and delay in time in which germination occurs.
Seed pelleting is done to improve performance and plantability of seed to improve germination. Seed pelleting is done on following types of seeds.
• Non round shape seeds.
• Small size and light weight seeds.
Material that is used in this technique may be
• Mixture or amalgam of fillers as clay and limestone.
• Efficient chemicals may use as
1. Plant growth hormones.
2. Insecticides or fungicides.
3. Micronutrients. (provide nourishment during emergence).
Main point in seed pelleting is that in this shape of seed is maintain according to requirement.
In pulses, seed pelleting is done to improve its growth rate and nutrients are applied in this form where less soil fertility is present to boost up growth of pulses and in latter pulses make symbiotic relation with microbes.
A layer of material is coated on seed but in this shape in maintained. Aim is only provide material not maintain shape while in seed pelleting shape is also maintain.
Advantages of seed coating
• To improve the appearance of seed.
• To improve proper drilling.
• To save excess seed rate.
• To apply different beneficial chemicals.
• To improve water uptake in stress condition.
Negativity of this technique is given below as
• Costly technique.
If coating is not accurate than seed deterioration of seed may occur.
Types of coating
• Seed coating.
• Film coating.
In film coating, precise amount of active ingredients are applied on seed surface Without obscuring of its surface.
Seed enhancement technique are used to increase germination, low seed rate and provide favorable environment in harsh conditions. Similarly in pulses, this phenomenon is try to get efficiency in seed production to gain high production in soil where low fertility is present.
To fight with soil born diseases and insects in soil. In short, seeds of pulses if treated with enhancement technique than it perform better as compared if not treated with techniques.
• S. Araújo, S. de, S. Paparella, D. Dondi, A. Bentivoglio, D. Carbonera, A. BalestrazziPhysical Methods for Seed Invigoration: Advantages and Challenges in Seed Technology
• Afzal et al., 2016I. Afzal, H.U. Rehman, M. Naveed, S.M.A. BasraRecent Advances in Seed Enhancements
• Ibrahim, 2016E.A. IbrahimSeed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds