Production Technology : Rice (oryza sativa) is staple food half of the world. It is used to fulfill the dietary requirement of billions of people in the world.
It is the important cereal crop and used as a feed about 4 billion people in the world. But in Pakistan, rice is used as a cash crop as well as food crop. Rice share in Pakistan agriculture almost 3.1% and 0.7% in GDP.
There are three duration of rice varieties such as, short duration varieties take 100−120 days, medium duration 120−140 days, and long duration 160 days plus. The district where are rice can be grown in Pakistan following as:
District of Punjab:
District of Sindh:
Sowing time of Rice:
Rice is a kharif crop and best sowing time of rice is may to june. It can be harvested after harvesting of wheat crop. The temperature required for rice crop is 21 to 37 Celsius, blooming the temperature required is 26.5 to 29.5 Celsius and ripening the temperature required is 20 to 25 Celsius. If tempt is low 20 Celsius then no batter grow.
Critical stages of Rice:
Critical stage is the period in which water applied to the crop but no response of crop as respect to water. There are four critical stages of Rice crop first stage is tillering, second is panicle initiation, third is heading and fourth stage is flowering.
Soil type and soil preparation:
Silt clay, silt clay loam and clay are the best soil textures for the growing of rice crop. The best soil for rice crop is fertile riverine alluvial soil. Addition of farm yard manure is best to increase organic matter in soil. The best time of farm yard manure is 1 month before sowing of crop.
After application of farm yard manure then planker are use for spreading of farm yard manure in the field and applied light irrigation in the field for proper attain of wattar condition because after wattar condition easy to ploughing in the field by cultivator. So, mixing of farm yard manure by cultivator.
In Pakistan, mostly rice is sown by nursery.5-6 kg seed are required to grow of one acre rice. For growing of one acre rice, we need 4- 5 marla land are required to grow one acre rice.
The recommended time of raising of nursery is after 20 May. Because if raising of nursery before 20 May chance of attack of insect pest in the field.
Transplanting time of nursery:
The best time of transplanting of nursery after one month of sowing. Two plants per hills is recommended if you transplant nursery in timely. 80,000 hill and 160,000 plants are required for one acre.The recommended distance of plant to plant is 9 inch.
For transplanting of nursery, we provide water in the field to create puddling condition. After puddling condition, used a planker in the field with tractor drawn or ‘Bull’. Recommended shallow transplanting at 1-2 cm depth.
Germination and Growth:
Germination start when first root and shoot emerge from seed, rice begin to grow. For germination, rice seed absorb a more amount of water and exposed to a temperature range of 10-40 Celsius. Rice gain 2 to 6 ft height.
Standing water in the field for first two week for proper germination of rice crop. 16 irrigation are required to grow rice. Five thousand liter water is required to produce 1 kg of rice.
Recommended dose of N:P:K is 60-65:26:24 kg/acre. All fertilizer may be applied by way of broadcast. Nitrogen is a mobile nutrient and easily available to plant. Nitrogen is fulfilled by consumption of 2.0-2.5 bags of urea and urea fertilizer should be applied between 30-70 days after sowing of rice.
Remaining nitrogen may be applied before sowing. Phosphorous application is fulfilled by 1-1.5 bag of DAP. Phosphorus is a immobile nutrient and not easily available to plant because movement of phosphorous in the soil is very low.
It is applied with early dose of fertilizer but split application may also be considered. Potash should be based on soil because generally considered that already more amount of potash in rice field.
There are three type of weeds in rice crop like grasses, sedges and broad leaf weeds. 15-20% losses due to weeds in rice crop. Sometime losses up to 50% in rice crop. so, early weedicide applied to overcome of weed problem.
First weedicides should be applied 15-20 days after germination. Second weedicide should be applied during 30-45 days after first applied weedicide.
Insect-pest and Disease:
Rice crop should be resistant against insect pest and diseases. Mostly attack of insect pest is stem borer from seedling to maturity. Blast disease attack during reproductive stage. Due to insect pest and disease 40-50% yield losses. If proper insecticides applied then controlled this problem and attain high yield.
It is harvest during October. When 20-25% grain moisture, 80-85% straw colored and grain in the lower part of panicle are in hard dough stage. Rice should be harvest 30 days after flowering. It is harvest by sickle and advance combine harvest. It is easily harvest by combine harvester machine.
The average yield of rice is 27 maund per acre. After harvesting it is packed in jute bag and some seeds are stored for next sowing of rice crop.
Authors: Arslan Ali, Tahawar Ali Syed