Agriculture is the key to Pakistan’s economy. Its total share is 21 percent. And 90% of agricultural production comes from irrigated agriculture. Agriculture completely depends on water which is reducing day by day due to irregular land.
The minimum water requirement for 140 percent cultivation is 65 million acre feet. While availability of water for the crops from canals, lakes, and tube wells are only 45 million acre feet. Which is reducing the production of our agricultural commodity. And the cost per acres of production is increasing.
Higher lands are unable to receive appropriate amount of water and due to stand water on lower lands the roots of plants become spoil. This causes the reduction in production and water wastage. Sphering (Karah) cannot level the soil accurately and it is costly and laborious. To level the soils with laser leveler to improve per acre production and resources of water reservoirs for this purpose we should adopt new technology.
What is laser land leveling?
This is the procedure to smoothen the soil surface by plus, minus 2 cm to its average height. Karah is being used in this method that needs a lot of power.
This karah can be moved in upward and downward position using arrays of laser. By the help of this karah soil is being cut from the upper part and being filled in the lower parts of the surface. By this surface becomes completely smooth.
Laser leveler has following parts which perform different functions:
- laser transmitter
- laser receiver
- control panel
- hydraulic control system
Transmitter produces laser ray with the help of Diode. Receiver feels that ray. From here a message goes to control panel that acts as a mind and send messages to control valve. Then the valve decides whether karah will go upward or downward.
Now we will take a look at each part
Karah is attached to back side of the tractor and by three units it is attach with tractor. Karah is very heavy in weight. That’s why we need more horse power tractor to pull karah. Its work is to cut or fill the soil. It takes message from hydraulic.
- Laser transmitter
Transmitter is attached to a plate. This plate’s height can be moved in vertical position with the help of screws. Transmitter is the most sensitive part in that whole scenario. Laser rays make a surface at 360 angles. So it has to be in right position.
It creates slope if it’s one part is high and other parts is low. If we want to level the soil at zero degree then we should fix the transmitter accurately and precisely. By one transmitter we can run 4 laser leveling unit at a time. One transmitter can level the area of one acre.
- Laser receiver
It takes messages from transmitter and send it to control box.
- Control Panel
Control panel takes the message from the receiver. It has lights of different colors. This shows the position of karah in the field. With this we can put karah on automatic or manually mode.
- Hydraulic control system
The control valve is equipped with hydraulic system. This is a two-way valve that controls karah. With the help of hydraulic pump karah moves up and down.
Smoothing the field with laser leveler
First of all take the karah in the middle of the altitude and then keep the karah high by 1-2 cm from soil. Run the tractor from upper to lower side in the form of circle and when the karah is filled with soil then driver needs to take it to a lower place.
So, that the maximum land can smooth and with it time and expenditures can be save and then take the tractor to a high place and then towards the lower place.
So that the earth becomes completely smooth and when the earth is completely smooth then run the tractor in straight line once the purpose of this is to compensate or level the soil where unsmooth.
Then review whether we have received the desired results or not. If we do laser leveling by taking these points then for about eight years we no need to level the soil again.
Advantages of laser land leveling
- Crops receive the equal amount of water if soil is leveled. Which cause good growth and more production of crops and crop is protected from insects up to 40 percent.
- The soil can include in agricultural land if it is 4 % leveled. On leveled soil there is equal distribution and saving of water. Along with water saving the expenditures also become low down. Weeds can be control with laser leveling easily.
- On leveled soil there is equal distribution of seed, fertilizer, water and other agricultural treatments to crop.
- If land is laser leveled the machinery can work easily. Otherwise there is more production due to laser leveling and crop is of same height and mature at the same time. Which cause the increase in benefit of farmer.
Authors: Muhammad Umer Hameed, Hassan Munir Bajwa, Muhammad Sajjad, Fahad Waris, Faryal Ahmed