Heavy metals are elements having atomic density about to 6 g/cm they are one of the most pollutants into the waste water.They have very adverse effects on the environment.
Pollution can be categorized into two types point source and diffuse pollution ( non point source ) point source pollutants are obtained by discharging of effluents at outfalls point source pollutants includes man made devices.
Non point source pollutants are basically generate by the point source when rain falls surface runoff will occur all effluents will travel with that water or the non pollutants are obtained from the already discharge pollution comes into the environment throughout the rainfall.
Industrial pollution is the point source pollution , waste water of industries contain toxic or carcinogenic elements industries drain their waste water into fresh water rivers without any treatment consideration which causes harmful effect on the aquatic as well as terrestrial ecosystem.
As, carcinogenic metals will travel through the food chain into the animals and then into the human being heavy metals contamination is the major problem in our environment these metals comes from the source such as industries, mining of different ores, extraction of coal, thermal power plants, these are the major source.
Excess of heavy metals will effect the ground water, surface water, soil layers and water strata which leaves harmful effect on biodiversity vegetation are not properly grow b/c of the presence of heavy metals.
Micro-organisms will kill the growth of plants totally depends upon the microbes they are the basic neutrino source for plants the most toxic elements such as cadmium, arcenic, copper, zinc, Mercury, lead, nickle for these elements the guideline values are mentioned by WHO.
As we emit those dangerous elements within the available limits which are beneficial for our biosphere In Pakistan heavy metals concentration increases in two province Sindh,
Punjab the most abundant issue now a days in sindh for extra existence of arcenic mainly of Sindh industries will dispose their waste water into river Indus it will result to increase the heavy metals quantity.
WHO guideline value required for arcenic is 10micro grams/liter of safe water for drinking purpose but in Pakistan guideline value of arcenic is 50micro gram/liter which is greater than the WHO value.
In Pakistan 80% illness due to the poor quality of palatable water it is estimated that water related disease cams on annual national income loss of Rs 25 to 58 billion and over all 250000 children’s die in Pakistan.
In every year due to the diarrhea diseases along this 20 to 40 % of Pakistan hospital beds are occupied by patients suffering from water related diseases only 25.6% of water is drinkable in Pakistan from which ( Rural 23.5% and urban 30%)of population drinks safe water.
The government of Pakistan should take instant discussion against such projects which are responsible for generating such type of waste industries ought to treat that disposal of waste water before dumping it into the rivers other wise they should store their toxic water inside the industry.
They have to manage reservoir as easily they dispose their waste into them, otherwise government should increase the emissions tax as they reduce their emission rate.
If they are unable to afford the much tax than they have to made industries at uncultivated and unpopulated areas by this proposal the life will not disturb it is beneficial for business men and for other population.
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