Aflatoxins are produced by different fungal species of genus Aspergillus (A.flavus and A. parasiticus), which are extremely toxic chemicals.
These toxic elements are present in processing and manufacturing stages of different crops as a contaminants and in poultry feed. Aflatoxins cause critical economic misplacement in the poultry and livestock industries.
Major appearance of Aflatoxins including B1, B2, G1 and G2 with, AFB1 is major biological toxic component.
It also causes different effects in poultry which are poor performance, liver pathology, immuno suppression, and changes in relative organ weights.
It cause primary liver cancer in humans because small amount of Aflatoxins and its metabolites present in edible tissues.
Efficacy of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate on Aflatoxins
Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) act as toxin binding agent.
Mechanism of action
A phyllosilicate clay, Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate tightly bind and immobilize aflatoxins in the gastrointestinal tract of birds.
Hence this process is known as adsorption(adsorption of more than 80% of toxin present in medium). It also leads to detoxification of mycotoxins through the process of adsorption.
Furthermore studies with molecular modelling assessed that aflatoxin binding to HSCAS may be attributed to the chemisorption of aflatoxin at surface within the interlamellar region of HSCAS.
Where the exterior surface of clay were responsible for only minor adsorption of toxins. AFB1 and HSCAS have a fast reaction that reached the equilibrium after 30 minutes.
Due to this reaction, approximately 200-230 nmol of aflatoxins can be bound per milligram of HSCAS. So, HSCAS considerably weakened the growth-inhibitory effects of AFB1 on growing chicks by 50 to 67 percent.
So reduction in the bioavailability and absorption of aflatoxins residues which ultimately effects on performance of birds. Use of HSCAS with a concentration of 0.5 to 2.0% in diet give significant results on chick’s health.
Effects of HSCAS on body weight, feed efficiency and lesions
Addition of HSCAS reduced the toxicity of aflatoxin and reduce the negative effect on weight gain about 65%.
The relative weight is significantly increasing in the liver, kidney, heart, spleen and proventriculus by aflatoxin. Relative weight of bursa significantly decreased by aflatoxin.
So, HSCAS to the diet containing AF, diminished the effects of AF on
relative weights of the liver, kidney, heart, gizzard and spleen.
HSCAS has not negative effect on efficiency of feed utilization and rate of mortality. Reduce the mortality rate about 28% in chicks receiving AF with HSCAS.
Effects of HSCAS on serum biochemistry
The HSCAS, totally protected against the decrease in serum glucose concentration in chicks consuming diet with aflatoxins.
Likewise, HSCAS provide partially protected against the decrease concentration of total protein, albumin, cholestrol, trigylcerides and mean corpuscular volume in chicks consuming diet with aflatoxins.
Similarly, HSCAS provide partial protection against the increase in creatinine kinase, gamma glutamyltransferase and urea nitrogen in chicks consuming diet with aflatoxins.
Authors: Muhammad Hammad Akhtar*1 , Anuam Akhtar1
1 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture Faisalabad.
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