Water plays most important role for every living thing. From last few decades shortage of water become central issue on international level.
One of the major issues in Pakistan is water shortage and due to extreme climate change and global warming water issue will be more critical situation in coming future. Our next purpose is to aware people towards the importance of water shortage and scarcity and how we will protect the water sources and minimize the water losses.
Under ground water level is going to be reduced due to high wastage and misuse of water at industrial domestic and agricultural level. For crop production water accessibility and availability are the most important constraining factors, so it is important to address the water shortage issue in water scared areas.
Scarcity of water in Pakistan is not concern of today, this issue was started in 1960 when the Ayub Khan surrendered main water supply in a deal with world bank to India. In that year Pakistan losses three main river. Form last few years water scarcity and drought reached in growing season towards its curtail stage, especially in Punjab and Sindh provinces.
Pakistan have Mangla , Cahsma and Tarbela as major water reservoirs and their capacity is 15.7 million acre feet. Theses reservoirs don’t full fill the water needs due to their shortage of capacity this is due to the less storage capacity. Storage capacity of worldwide reservoirs’ are 120 days but our reservoirs have only 40 days.
This means that other states have large storage capacity as compared to the Pakistan. Due to shortage of water table is continuously disturbing with the passage of time and water scarcity is occurring in many areas of Pakistan.
People are not using water according to their use and wasting water in many ways like flood water irrigation, more water drainage and running taps. Farmer’s wastes water in the form of flood irrigation which may sometimes cased water logging and flooding condition in filed
Illiteracy in farmers is a big issue directly affecting the water scarcity, they don’t adopt irrigation scheduling for better efficiency of water and reduce water waste in filed. Water shortage is may be result illiteracy and political issues at ground and upper level.
Organized distribution of water efficiency is not present in Pakistan that’s why more losses are occur at water courses and canals level due to the barriers less water reaches to the field. Flooding cause 35% water losses in Pakistan.
Annual total available water for crop plants is 144.9 MAF but due to negligence and water losses 31 MAF of water available to the plants and 113 MAF loss due to rivers annual flow. Conveyance losses are 25% at canals and 28% water losses occurred during application.
According to an estimate due to these water scarcity conditions Punjab may turn into desert within next 15 to 20 years and agricultural land degradation may become threat to the food security. According to the survey and report by ministry of water resources ¾ of Punjab is in and only ¼ is using water form canal water.
Depleted ground water in Punjab and other provinces will face scarcity of water in future. If we don’t take this issue seriously our and don’t find the remedies for storing water no more water will be available to fulfill the requirements and ultimately our land become dry due to the drought conditions.
Our cropping system totally depend on water so the most important sector effected will be the agriculture sector. Food Scarcity and food insecurity may occur due to less crop production and less food will be available in the market. Food scarcity may also occur which may result in less available food to people in future due to less crops production.
Thus it is important of us to take some initiatives to avoid the water insecurity and secure water for the future of agriculture. We should avoid the wasting of water and try to minimize the use of water on individual basis. We should use the water in a precise and efficient way.
Farmers should adopt the right methods of irrigation and apply water in an efficient way not flooding the water in field. Farmers should irrigate the file on right time and try to minimize the losses. New water reservoirs and dams should be made for water storing and avoid flooding and drought problems.
To build Basha dam our prime minister have taken an initiate to protect us for the future water crisis. If we ignore and don’t take this issue seriously than we will face drought water scarcity and food security in future.
Fund to Dam is organized by Prime minister and Chief Justice of Pakistan so it is important prosperity for every person in overseas and Pakistan to participate and save our future because now it is very important to raise dam and increased water shortage in future.
Authors: Muhammad Adnan, Dr. Mubashar Nadeem, Mubashir Hussain and Mohsin Amin