“Herpes is a viral infection caused by HSV (herpes simplex virus). It is a contagious virus that can pass from person to person through direct contact”.
The name “herpes” comes from the Greek ‘herpein’, which means, “to creep.” This describes the chronic, latent, or recurrent nature of these infections. These are extremely well-adapted pathogens, begins nearly everywhere.
It is highly prevalent infection globally, with most common type affecting around 3.7 billion people under the age of 50 years
There are 100 known herpes viruses while only eight infect humans but the two major types of HSV are most common and lifelong infections. Are following
- HSV-1 (herpes type 1, or oral herpes)
- HSV-2 (herpes type 2, or genital herpes)
Herpes simplex virus type 1
This type of (HSV-1) is the most common form of HSV. Due to its constant presence worldwide, the medical community considers HSV-1 as an endemic disease.
It typically leads to oral herpes, as the vast majority of HSV-1 cases affect the mouth and its surrounding area. HSV-1 often develops during childhood and is a lifelong condition. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) commonly causes orolabial ulcers. More than 50 % of people in the United States have HSV-1.
Herpes simplex virus type 2
HSV-2 typically leads to genital herpes, which means that symptoms usually develop around the genital and anal areas. Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection causes significant disease globally. Adolescent and adult infection may present as painful genital ulcers. About 15.5 per cent of people in the U.S. aged 14-49 have HSV-2.
Signs and Symptom
- Blistering sores
- pain during urination
- swollen lymph nodes
- lack of appetite
- Eye infection
- General illness (from mild illnesses to serious conditions)
- Physical or emotional stress
- Immunosuppression due to AIDS or such medications as chemotherapy or steroids
- Trauma to the affected area
- Due to the weakened immune system
Herpes Simplex Virus is never removed from the body by the immune system. Because HSV enters the human body to control of the human cell’s nucleus and alter its structure while HSV is replication. Therefore, there is no treatment can completely treat HSV. However, there are some f medicines which are used for inhibiting the effect of HSV.
Preventions for HSV
Although there is no cure for herpes, you can take measures to avoid contracting the virus or to prevent transmitting HSV to another person.
- Try to avoid direct physical contact with the affected people.
- Don’t share anything that can pass the virus around, such as cups, towels, silverware, clothing, makeup, or lip balm.
- Wash your hands thoroughly and apply medication with cotton swabs to reduce contact with sores
Scope of the problem
According to a February data brief published by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Health Statistics, the prevalence ratio of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 is 47.8% and 11.9%, respectively, for individuals aged 14 to 49 years.
- Viral culture
This test involves taking a tissue sample or scraping of the sores for examination in the laboratory.
- Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test
PCR is used to copy your DNA from a sample of your blood, tissue from a sore or spinal fluid. The DNA can be tested to establish the presence of HSV and determine the type of HSV.
- Antibody test
If there are no lesions, but the virus is present. Then blood test can look for proteins that the body creates in response to infection with either type of HSV. Then determined the dormant infections, rather than just active ones, can deliver a positive result.
- Blood test
This test analyzes the sample of blood for the presence of HSV antibodies to detect the past herpes infection.
Authors: Alishbah Roobi,M.Naeem Faisal,Wafa Majeed, Noreen Aslam