Shading is an imperative attractant for some, bloom visiting creepy crawlies (anthophilous). Therefore, pan traps catching is a proficient system that can be effortlessly and cost-viably used to quantitatively test collections of anthophilous.
Nonetheless, shading inclinations of anthophilous is an imperative wellspring of predisposition that should be considered in pan trap reviews.
By illustration sub tests involved distinctive shading blends from a database of pan trap studies in the marshes of the Cape Floristic Region, we inspect the impacts of shading on container trap gets and figure out which mixes of hues may give better gauges of decent variety when examining with multicolor arrangements of pan traps.
Pan trap catches included the major groups of anthophilous in the region (Coleoptera, Diptera, and Hymenoptera), but butterflies (Lepidoptera) were strongly under-represented.
Color played an important role in determining the species richness and composition of pan trap catches, with color sets that included high reflectance yellow and white generally having caught with the highest species richness.
While all color combinations provided reasonable estimates of proportional species richness, a proportional abundance of taxa varied among different color sets, and did not accurately reflect actual proportions of different taxa in the entire dataset.
For comparative biodiversity surveys and assessments, we recommend the use of high reflectance colors such as white and yellow traps, while for full inventory surveys, it may be necessary to include other colors to catch rarer species that are excluded by the high reflectance colors alone.
Pan traps are primarily used to capture micro Hymenoptera, but also trap many other insects. All you need for a pan trap is a small colored pan filled with soapy water. The dish liquid is used to break the surface tension of the water, so the insects will fall through.
Pan trap surveys for pollinator insects highlight the wide variation in the attractiveness of particular colors to different species or groups (e.g. Cane et al. 2000; Laubertie et al. 2006; Gollan et al. 2011).
Although most pan trap surveys have focused on bees, the few studies that include other pollinator insects (e.g. ﬂies, beetles, thrips, etc.) have shown that one color cannot be considered more attractive than others when targeting a wide range of taxa in different ecological contexts (Kirk 1984; Bowie et al. 1999; Vrdoljak & Samways 2012).
UV blue is currently considered to be the most suitable color to attract bees perhaps because it has been noted previously that certain bees pieces in some habitats prefer to visit blue or violet ﬂowers (Kevan 1983; Weiss 2001).
Also, European honeybees have shown a preference for blue visual cues in some laboratory experiments (e.g. Horridge 2007), and some pan trap studies from North America have collected many more bee individual in blue bowls than in other colored bowls (Cane et al. 2000; Campbell & Hanula 2007).
Insect those attract
Colored pan trapping is a simple and efﬁcient method for collecting ﬂying insects, yet there is still discussion over the most effective bowl color to use for particular target groups (e.g. pollinator insects).
It is an effective way and preferable method to trapping flying insects. And checked the most attractant color of pan traps The success of particular colors can vary across bioregions and habitats.
For the attraction of pollinators, we use the flowering color size and shape their fragrance (Niesenbaum et al. 1998), with color is the more important attractants (Kevan 1972).
For the evaluation and monitoring of pollinator diversity and abundance in forests, color pan traps are an effective method. Color traps have been used to capture many different types of insects. For example, for the wide variety of phytophagous insect’s yellow traps have more effective for the catchment of different insects (Kirk 1984) and predators (Leksono et al. 2005,
Hymenoptera is caught mostly in blue traps (Aguiar and Sharkov 1997), Diptera is caught mostly in white or yellow traps (Disney et al. 1982). Bees and various other pollinators respond to common floral colors (Kirk 1984) associated with floral rewards (pollen nectar) (Leong and Thorp 1999). Pan traps consisting of colored pans filled with water and an additive (e.g. soap) to help break surface
A common type of colored traps are tension pan traps and yellow has been the most widely used color because it attracts a diversity of insects (Leong and Thorp 1999).
Few studies have used pan traps to estimate relative abundances and species richness of bees or other pollinators in different habitats the pan traps are used, despite their usefulness in such studies with other insects (South wood 1978) and using of this we compare the result and richness of species can be evaluated their potential for comparing species richness and diversity (Leong and Thorp 1999).
The objective of this examination was to see if honey bees that search on high shrub blueberry are bound to be caught in snares raised inside the shade of the yield than either above or underneath the shelter.
Shaded dish (or bowl) catching is thought about a basic, efﬁcient system for gathering ﬂying creepy crawlies, and its absence of collector bias (compared with, for example, sweep netting) makes it especially valuable for looking at invertebrate networks crosswise over time, areas or when gatherer encounter shifts (Stick et al. 2000; Westphal et al. 2008).
Skillet catching was customarily utilized for inspecting farming vermin and phytophagous creepy crawlies (e.g. Evans &Medler 1967; Boiteau 1983) however now is likewise utilized for gathering honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) and other pollinating creepy crawlies (Leong and Thorp 1999; Campbell & Hanula 2007; Gollan et al. 2011).
In spite of the beneﬁts of dish catching as an inspecting strategy, the examination of its utilization for testing pollinator creepy crawlies stays restricted.
Potential examining predispositions related with the method have been identiﬁed as of late (Roulston et al. 2007; Baum &Wallen 2011), and it isn’t clear which bowl shading is most effective (i.e. that attracts the greatest numbers and diversity of target species) in a specific setting,
For example, natural surroundings or sub habitat. Blue snares have been embraced as the best honey bee attractant (Stick et al. 2000; Stephen and Rao 2005), yet the ﬁndings of research utilizing container traps to test honey bees and other pollinator bugs don’t demonstrate a predictable inclination for a specific bowl shading (e.g. Campbell &Hanula 2007; Gollan et al. 2011; Grundel et al. 2011).
The accomplishment of certain dish trap hues in pulling in pollinators may differ crosswise over bioregions, geography or some other classiﬁcation of territory. For instance, Grundel et al. (2011) examined locales in north-western Indiana, the USA utilizing blue, yellow and white snares, and got the most honey bees in white container traps.
Campbell and Hanula (2007) inspected locales in the south-east USA including beachfront plain and southern Appalachian Mountain biological systems, with red, blue, yellow and white container traps and got the most honey bees in blue snares.
Gollan et al. (2011) sampled sites in the New South Wales North Coast, Sydney Basin, and South Western Slopes regions in Eastern Australia observe that to using the yellow and white traps, and mostly in yellow traps, bees are caught. To our knowledge, pan trapping pollinator insects in Australian habitats there is only one publication (Gollan et al. 2011).
Hence, we attentive on Hymenoptera and Diptera, as the wider possibility of our research was to count potential natural pollination services for almond groves that could accompaniment present profitable European honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) stocks.
Pan traps are used to evaluate the diversity or richness of different insect populations in a specific area. It also used to observe the population of specific insect species. To check the attraction of different insect toward the different color
Experimental results showed great variation amongst traps in terms of different insect species caught at weekly intervals. The crop stage or times of sampling have also great effects on the number of insects caught.
Mainly four insects’ species were found in the traps i.e. Aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kalt, whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, painted bug Bagrada picta Fabricius and beetle Phylloretta Cruciferae Goeze. Among these whiteflies were always larger in number than others during the study period.
The yellow pan traps captured greater insect pests followed by green and blue color trap each, than any of the other traps that we installed, which is more than half of the total insect pests capture in all traps The white-colored water pan traps captured the lowest insect pest during the sampling period.
Authors: 1Faheem Shoukat
1Department of Entomology, MNS- University of Agriculture, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.