Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever(CCHFV) is 2nd the most important emerging parasitic diseases throughout the world especially Asia, Africa, South east Europe, Middle east including Pakistan.
CCHFV was first reported in Crimean peninsula in 1944-1945. Firstly it was named as Crimean haemorrhagic fever after a lot of laboratory tests and experiments. It was then isolated first time in 1956 and named as CCHFV.
This virus causes morbidity and mortality in Livestock sector and transfer by a tick born vector named as hyalomma. CCHFV is an enveloped single stranded RNA virus. The multiplication of this virus ( CCHFV ) includes penetration, assembly and release of infected cells. CCHFV recognize the glycoprotein receptor on cells then by process of clathrin dependent endocytosis virus enter into the cytoplasm of host cell.
The viral RNA takes control on host machinery and start the process of transcription and translation as a result new viral proteins are formed. These viral proteins move outside of the cell by budding off plasma membrane and attack the new healthy cells.
Signs and symptoms of CCHFV includes high grade fever, stomach pain(gastrointestinal bleeding), diarrhoea, myalgia, headache, nausea, sensitivity to light abdominal pain, rashes on skin, jaundice, severe nose bleeding, and hind and for-limb muscle aches. These symptoms appear mostly within 1 to 3 days of exposure .
CCHFV report in Pakistan
Pakistan is also severely effected with CCHFV same as other countries in the world . It was first time reported in a forest change manga near Lahore. A doctor died due to Congo fever while he was treating a patient suffering from CCHFV in Lahore. Another patient was admitted in Quetta, Balochistan two surgeons who were treating this patient was found to be infected with CCHFV.
In October 2010 world health organization reported with 32 cases reported by ministry of health, Pakistan. From January to June 2013 ,22 cases were reported and mortality rate was 32% ,6 of these cases were confirmed by laboratory testing.
Similarly in year 2014-2015 Pakistan faced same out break of CCHFV disease and fertility rate was about 38%. Last year 65 cases were reported of CCHFV. Few of them were confirmed and few of them were in initial stage. Many new cases reported near Eid-ul- Azha every year.
Preventive measures about CCHFV
CCHFV is very lethal and contagious disease so there is a need of public awareness about this disease.
Following preventive measures should be adopted to control CCHFV throughout the world including Pakistan.
- Seminars should be conducted in order to educate the people about this problem especially medical health workers and farmers.
- Proper hygienic conditions should be maintained and tick spray should be done at regular interval on dairy farms especially during the days of Eid– ul– Azha.
- Proper monitoring of animals should be done especially sacrificing animals.
- Ticks infection mostly occurs during the months from June- august in Pakistan and near Eid– ul –Azha so special monitoring teams should be organize to check out the ticks number during these days .
- Close contact with infected persons should be avoided.
- Gloves and face mask must be used during take care of infected
- Infected syringes regularly should be disposed off by proper
- Routinely blood test of all those medical workers and farmers that directly and indirectly involved with patients and animals.
9.Environmental controlling authorities and health care associations should play their role to control ticks infestation.
10.Boundaries should be made for infected areas.
11.Monitoring the transported animals by legal authorities especially during cross bordering.
All these measurements should be done to prevent further spread of Congo fever disease in Pakistan.