Environmental changes have inverse impact on agriculture, but our farming community doesn’t aware of it. They don’t have any idea that it might face huge changes in the next 20-30 years due to rising temperatures. Due to environmental changes, we may lose 30% of our yield and production.
Agriculture is the foundation of the Pakistan’s economy. It contributes 21% to the country’s GDP. Agricultural societies include about 67% of the population that is legally involved with agriculture. The income rural system relies on agriculture, but it is depicted as a business that is generally unsafe.In this way, it affects the income of rural community.
The significant risks posed by a variety of internal and external factors to agri business are given to the risks of production, promotion and money, although the important objectives behind the inefficient and unstable situation of farmers include the inability to obtain improved seeds and fertilizer, weed infestation, water shortage, drought and changes in normal precipitation insufficient research work in waste management of some agricultural harvests. (Ashraf et al., 1999; Ashfaq et al., 2003; Ashraf, 2004). Most ineffective conventional practices of farming crops, mono culture, and traditional soil management practices.
Pakistan is located in arid and semi-arid regions and faces the threat of rising temperatures. This expansion of temperature will cause extreme effects. Pakistan is an agricultural country, but it is about to decline, and this decline is not equal to ten years ago.
Environmental change is evolving into one of the major natural problems facing the world today. The outflow of ozone-depleting substances (GHGs), such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), are responsible for the changes in the global atmosphere.
Environmental changes will cause fluctuations, for example, due to rising temperatures, rising sea levels, changes in precipitation and the development of climate zones. Due to variations in climate, the spells of storms and floods become harsh. Worldwide temperatures will increase by 1.8oC to 4oC, with a typical normal increase in temperature of 2.8oC (IPCC, 2007). In view of the fact that due to deforestation, extensive use of petroleum products, modern mechanization, the concentration of CO2 has expanded from 280 ppm to 380 ppm, which is one of disaster of climate change.
Agriculture is an economic system that is deeply affected by climatic conditions. Changes in the atmosphere have destroyed the efficiency of the agricultural components, making it economically and physically impossible to cope with atmospheric in homogeneities and changes. Efficiency is influenced by a variety of environmental factors, including precipitation pattern, rise in temperature, changes in planting and harvesting dates, water availability and land rationality. Environmental change may not have a major impact but regional impacts are becoming more widespread. Some areas will benefit from environmental changes, while a few areas will be severely affected.
The increase in temperature has radically reduced net income, and in addition, future estimates of expected net income will be in deficit. The increase in temperature has made the farmers of arid areas gradually unable to do farming because the land reserve is basically small. As a result, elevated temperatures will cause the planting network to increase local demand to a large extent due to dry land conditions that are deficient in water. The overall extent of the negative effects of temperature is more significant than the constructive outcome of precipitation in the region. It has been found that a 1% increase in temperature causes a loss of Rs. 4,180 to the net revenue per annum. Distribution new farming techniques, including new water system technologies, new production cultivation strategies and amendments needed for farming adjustment, which will be suitable subsidiaries for changes in arable land requirements in arid regions.
It is concluded from the latest review and observations that government can play its role by observing or monitoring climate change and its likely influence of agriculture and then disseminate the results of this monitoring in addition to level play field for adaptation practices of the wheat farmers. New crop varieties along with conservation agriculture practices should be followed which are more suited to a warmer climate of the arid region. New crops with increased heat and drought tolerant will be preferred that can help in reducing potential damages of climatic variations. Policies that increase farmer flexibility would also adopt by farmers to adjust to new circumstances. At the end the government could help in development of agriculture by irrigation and other development projects. As temperatures rise in this region and no irrigation system are installed then critical conditions can take place