“Pollinators are any agents that transfers pollen from stamen (male part) to stigma (female part) for fertilization”.
Dispersal of pollen is necessary for the plants to be fertilized and to give fruits, seeds and young plants. A pollinator may be an insect and it might be other animals, for example small mammals, birds, butterflies, moths, bees etc.
Pollen are moved from one plant to another plant by different activities of the pollinators. When one insect sits on a flower for the purpose of getting nectar, the pollen of the same flowers stick with the legs of the insect, and when this insect lands on any other flower of the same species the pollen fall there and this ultimately gives rise to fertilization.
a. Provide us food such as fruits, vegetables and nuts.
b. Avoid soil eruption
c. Give us various raw materials.
d. Increase oxygen in the atmosphere.
Factors affecting pollinators:
Unfortunately, there are several factors which are contributing towards decline of various pollinators. It is a serious case and it must be brought under consideration. These factors are disturbing the pollinators especially honey bees which are major pollinators. Some of these factors which are causing adverse effect on pollinators are given below
- Effect of climate:
About 90% of reproduction in flowering plants is carried out by small animals. So, decrease in number of pollinator is a matter of great attention. There are many flowers, which produce a fragrance that Is a mixture of many different compounds. These compounds of emitted by flowers in the environment to attract pollinators. Many plant structures, color and odor are main tactics so,Climate change will surely affect these ques in many ways.
Modern investigations indicate that increase in temperature and aridity is badly affecting the scentof flowers, which is destabilizing the natural activities of these pollinators. This is an alarming phenomena.
- Risk to pollinators by pesticides:
Now a days, various insecticides are used to control pests. These pesticides are very toxic for the environment, when they are applied on crops. They kill pests, but at the same time pesticides negatively affect the habitat of pollinators and also disturb their daily routine. Honey bees and other are vulnerable towards pesticides and they tend to decline with the passage of time. These pesticides bring neurological and behavioral changes in pollinators. LD50 of pesticides is now mention on the bags which shows their acute or chronic effects
- Pressure from pathogens and parasites:
pollinators come across a large variety of pathogens and parasites, such as viruses, bacteria, mites, fungi and nematodes as well. These small living organisms may change physiology, metabolism and homeostasis. They also bring changes in the neural system of pollinators. Some social bees which live in groups, possess a characteristic as division of labour , have adopted some ways to minimize the harmful effects triggered by pathogens and some parasites.
- Stress from transportation:
There are many beekeepers who carry the colonies from one place to another for away place, and it obviously takes much times. Due to this reason, the interaction of the pollinators towards pesticides, Pathogens and parasites. The access of pollinators to pollens becomes less. Ultimately, some foraging bees adopt strategies to learn and assess their surroundings. This adaptation makes them volatile to Severe issues as Colony Collapse Disorder(CCD).
- Plant-pollinator interaction:
It is fact that biotic and abiotic factors may affect soil quality. As a result, it changes the growth of plants, their production and causes resistance to pest. Soil enrichment positively correlate with some bumble bee species. Because it lessens the time of first discovery and mainly it decreases search duration of bees for food.