Livestock and poultry manure can be an alternative source of organic fertilizer where the use of anthropogenic chemicals is prohibited.
At the same time, it is an economical method to use manures instead of organic artificial fertilizer because manure is cheap and prevents.
A lot of applications of chemical fertilizers in agriculture soil had caused serious environmental problems in china. It includes deterioration of the physical structure of the soil, unbalances of soil nutrients, and water eutrophication.
Environmental pollution of manure in areas with high livestock and poultry densities caused by inappropriate disposing of. Inappropriate disposing of any chemical material destroys our environment. It is known that manures enrich with N, P and organic matter, and many studies showed that livestock and poultry manures give a positive effect on crop production and they also improve soil’s physical properties that give help the crop to increase in high rate. Many people give focus (emphasize) on the roles of manure in agriculture.
Nitrogen is necessary for plant growth. It is a mineral element most demanded by plants because N is moving within the plant, deficiency symptoms are expressed on older leaves. It is mobile in plants. it is pale green or yellow in absence of Crop growth is limited and same case is with an excess of Nitrogen is in the atmosphere, the plant takes N from the atmosphere, soils and biological material of terrestrial environment.78% of N is in the atmosphere as N2. Nitrogen fixed by bacteria (rhizobium). The bacteria from an association with plant and help to take nitrogen. So the nitrogen also fixes by the plant. The legume family help to fix nitrogen. only legume family can fix nitrogen because it forms an association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria and to form nodules on the roots.
Phosphorus complex nucleic acid structure of a plant that helps in protein synthesis. It is essential for plant growth and maturity. It helps in photosynthesis and cell division. It stimulates the growth of young plants, giving them good and vigorous nutrition has both economic and Environmental implications.it is mobile in plants. Its deficiency is shown in older leave. It covers a very short distance in soil.
Organic matter provides plant nutrient supply, holds water, soil structure, aggregation and erosion prevention.
Due to the addition of organic matter, the pore spaces of soil is increased and aeration also increase. It helps in decrease the soil compaction . also increase the water holding capacity of the soil. improve the soil structure. There were a lot of problems raised from the manure application including salt toxicity of manures to plants, and trace matters were accumulated in plant that may pose a health risk when these were consumed by humans or livestock.
So by evaluation of the application of manure from intensive farming, should be given. In China, the organic manure utilization which is historically traditional in farmland is long’s by the quick development of intensive farming. Quantities of poultry excrement’s and quantities of livestock increased rapidly and there constitutes varied a lot compared with that before. Survey of the status of pollution in livestock, poultry fields manures and heavy metals in Jiangsu province, China, was carried out in our laboratories it was discovered that Cu and Zn concentration were high in animal manures; for example the Cu concentration in a sample of pig manure reached as high as 1726 mg kg-1 contents of livestock feeds and animals manure in England and Wales and similar results were observed.
So it is not clear what these measures containing high concentration of heavy metals are applied in agricultural soil, especially in a long-term, because metal input through the application of manure to the soil will have a different plant growth and effecting soil chemistry as well as metal uptake from the metals spiked as metal Sulphate in soil. Nitrogen and Phosphorous pollution as how to control pathogenic contamination and waste water from plants breeding recently have been greatly concerned in China, but little attention was paid to heavy metal pollution of poultry feeds, livestock and manures; and there is limited information in agricultural soil about heavy metal input through livestock and poultry manures.
Different amounts of Cu and Zn from poultry manure, livestock for the soil receiving the manure for many different times results in soil metal accumulation, were introduced in garden soil to evaluate their effects on pochoir and growth of radish and uptake of Cu and Zn. The organic matter is environmentally friendly. And cause less pollution.
Soil and manures
A surface (0–20 cm) garden soil (Luvisols) was sampled at Jiangxi County, Nanjing. Livestock and poultry manure samples, including pig manure (PM), chicken manure (CM) and commercial organic manure (OM) were collected from intensive farming plants in the suburb of Nanjing. The soil and manures were air-dried, ground, and sieved to pass through a 1.0 mm mesh before use. Some physical and chemical properties of the tested samples. The pH of the manure(Chicken, pig) and organic manure were higher than that of the garden soil.
The electric conductivities (EC) of the chicken manure and organic manure were higher than that of the pig manure and the soil, suggesting their possible salt toxicity to plants and soil organism. Over the past few decades, livestock production has undergone an industrial revolution, resulting in the large-scale generation of livestock manure. Livestock manure has many beneficial nutrients, which can improve agricultural crop production, and is an organic alternative to chemical fertilizers.
Livestock manure requires proper treatment before application to agricultural land because it contains toxic heavy metals and pathogenic microorganisms. When improperly treated, stored or used, livestock manure can pollute rivers, soil ecosystems, and underground drinking water, thereby affecting all living organisms. By adding manure to soil it helps to increase porosity which decreases aeration problem and improve the soil structure. The availability of the microbes is maximum. help to decrease soil compaction…
Nowadays the much attention is given to achieve food security by increasing the burdening of the population. Due to the green revolution, the use of fertilizer, pesticide increase and this increase deteriorate the quality of the soil. To overcome these issues, the use of organic manure should be beneficial for the soil. moreover, chemical fertilizer may cause harmful effect on living-organisms and pollute the environment .but the organic matter is environmentally friendly and pollution-free. the use of organic matter improves soil structure, aeration problems and water holding capacity.