Diagnoses and prevention of Lung cancer

Lung cancer  is virulent lung tumor characterized by malignancy in the tissue of lung. It can be spread to different body parts by the process of metastasis.

Diagnoses and prevention of Lung cancerLung cancer was unique before the arrival of cigarette. About 90% of patients have smoking history.

However, other aspects such as radon gas, asbestos, polluted air exposure, Beta-carotene ingestion and chronic infection may lead towards lungs carcinoma.

It is the most familiar basis of death in women  after the breast cancer.Malaysian National Cancer Registry Cancer Registry (2007-2011), reported  Age Standard Rate (ASR) of lung cancer cases with male 14.4% and female 6.0% (incidence per 100,000).

Lung cancer can be depicting into squamous cell lung cancers, small cell lung cancer, Adenocarcinoma, and large cell anaplastic carcinoma.


  • Respiratory symptoms: Coughing, SOB, and wheezing sound.
  • Systemic symptoms: Weight reduction,pyrexia,clubbing of the nail and fragility.
  • Neurological symptoms: Fainting, headache, convulsion  and limb weakness.

Symptoms associated with cancer mass pressing:

Chest ache bone torture, dysphagia, and superior vena cava hindrance. If carcinoma develop in the air corridors of lung it cause the blockade of airflow(breathing difficulty).



Cigarette consumption may contribute towards the lung malignancy. Cigarette consists of more than 70 known carcinogens e.g. isotopes of polonium 210.Marijuana smoke contains same toxins as tobacco. However, outcome of cannabis on lung is opaque.


Radon is achromatic and inodorous gas and produce by the seizing up of radium. Radon is the second frequent basis of lung malignancy. Radon radiation ionizes the genetic makeup causing gene mutation and sometimes leads toward uncontrolled growth of cells.


Working in place that having great exposure with asbestos and other agents  such asArsenic, Beryllium and Chromium may increase the risk of lung carcinoma. Asbestos and tobacco smoke havesymbioticsequel on the development of lung tumor. In smoker whoworks in polluted environment with asbestos may proliferate the risk of lung cancer 45-fold than normal population.Asbestos typically cause the cancer of pleura.


Approximately 8% lungs cancer is because of genetic mutation. Polymorphism on the chromosomes 5, 6 and 15 are well-known for lung tumor.


Chest radiograph is initial step for diagnosis. CT scan can be mostly use for determining the variety and size of disease. Bronchoscopy is used for tumor histopathology. Position emission tomography (PET) is larger use of non-surgical autopsy over sagittal examination and monitoring.


In tissue sampling different methods are used for identification of lung cancer.

1: Transbronchial needle aspiration is indicated for central lesion.

2: Sputum cytology is indicated for non-invasive, echo testing is needed if finding are negative.

3: Electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy polishes up the diagnostic yield of peripheral lesion.

4: Pleural biopsy is use for pleural effusion and if pleural cytology result are negative.

5: Thoracentesis (pleural fluid) boost the yield and lessen the risk of pneumothorax; second sampleenhances the diagnostic yield.


Prognosis elements in NSCLC involve presence pulmonary symptoms, degree of spread, large tumor (3cm) and vascular lesion.

Prognosis elements in small cell lung cancer encompass neuter, different phases of disease, performance status and involvement of liver or CNS in the time of recognition.


  • Discontinuance of smoking is effectual step for the prevention of lung carcinoma.
  • Avoid the region of smoking.
  • Radon testing should be performed.
  • Avoid the contact with carcinogens at workplace.

Maria Daud Bhatti

post-graduation in pharmacology from University of Agriculture Faisalabad

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