“Artificial application of water to soil through manually, electrically, mechanically through a manage system for purpose of supplying moisture essential for plant growth’’.
In present times, when water crisis is developing very fast everywhere, we should adopt improved techniques of irrigation to encourage suitable water management.
There are different modern irrigation methods
1) Sprinkler irrigation method
2) Drip irrigation
3) Pot irrigation method
Sprinkler Irrigation Method
Sprinkler irrigation method is a method of applying water to a controlled manner in that is similar to rainfall. For development of sprinkler irrigation method, the following circumstances are essential.
- It is done in those areas where having inadequacy of water.
- Unleveled ground level where irrigation is not possible by other irrigation methods.
- Places having high temperature where crops might get destroyed, sprinkler irrigation method maintains humid environment for the crops.
- Where soil textures may be of different types, for example, sandy soil at some places and stony soil at others places
- Irrigation may require in large areas.
- It is a suitable irrigation method for sustainable development of water resources in present times.
It can be installed in fields by three methods
In this method, the main line and branch pipelines are permanently installed in the field. After that it is not possible to shift its place. The pipeline remains safe being underground, whereas in case it is outside, the breakages are more by frequent changing.
In this method, the main pipeline is permanently fixed under the ground level but branch pipelines are kept outside temporarily so that by changing their places, the whole of the land might be irrigated.
In this case, the whole arrangement is temporary and their places can be transferred as per requirement. In this method, more irrigation is possible with lesser investment.
- It is helpful in soil conservation and stabilization of sand dunes in desert areas.
- This system saves the crop from extreme frost or temperature.
- Fertilizer application as well as insecticide spray can be done by sprinkler system.
- Waste land can be improved by less water.
- It is an expensive method.
- It requires technical knowledge.
- Sprinkler irrigation method cannot be used in all crops.
- Water to be used in sprinkler method should be clean.
Drip Irrigation Method.
Method of irrigation in which water drip slowly to the roots of plants, either from the above soil or buried below the surface.
Following are the main organs of drip irrigation method:
Water pump, main PVC, pipeline, valve, water measure, pressure controller.
- Water directly reaches the roots of the plants, which take water to plants in balanced quantities.
- Drip irrigation method saves 30 to 70% water and it is possible to irrigate three times more area with the same amount of water.
- Weeds do not spread because water reaches only near plants and does not spread in the whole field.
- Drip irrigation method can do balanced irrigation.
- Cultivation in saline and alkaline soil also can be done by this method of irrigation.
- Lesser labourers are required for irrigation work.
- Drip irrigation method is expensive.
- It requires special technical knowledge for successful operation of this method.
- In heavy soils, it creates problems of flow and water blockages.
- Plants are able to get nutritive elements in a very limited area.
- It is not suitable for every crop.
- Animals may cause damage to branch pipelines and dripper pipelines.
Pot Irrigation Method
Method in which water seeps slowly out through the clay and the plants develop roots close to the pot to take advantages of the water supply.
Pot irrigation method can be adopted in the following conditions
- Unlevelled land.
- Area having maximum shortage of water.
- Such difficult areas where supply of fruits and vegetables is difficult and they are costly.
- Only the area near the pot gets irrigated and not the whole area.
- Evaporation of water is minimum in this method.
- Water seepage below the ground is also in minimum quantity.
- It is the best method for horticulture crops and vegetables.
- It needs minimum technical knowledge.
- Irrigation in this method is possible in a limited area.
- This method requires clean water.
- It is costly to draw out pitchers again and again and re-fix them.
- It is not suitable for every crop.