The role of agriculture in Pakistan has two important factors i.e. fertile land and water but intensive cultivation, increased use of fertilizer, pesticide and soil management practices resulted in deterioration of these factors.
Agriculture is the process of cultivation of land or soil for production purpose. Agriculture plays a crucial role in the economy of developing countries, and provides the main source of food, income, and employment to their rural populations.
As an agronomist, studying plants and soil to develop better planting, cultivation, and harvesting techniques, improve crop yield and solve problems facing the agriculture industry.
Pakistan is an agricultural country. It has two important resources i.e. fertile land and water but intensive cultivation, increased use of fertilizer, pesticide and soil management practices resulted in deterioration of fertile land.
Agriculture plays a vital role in the economic development of Pakistan. Agriculture is a major source of food of population of Pakistan. It is the source of national income and employment (48% of the labor force) is directly engaged with agriculture.
It includes 21% of total GDP and 41% of the total labor force in Pakistan. So, it is the main source of income of the economic population. Agriculture is helping many industries by providing raw material to the industries. In Pakistan, agriculture is irrigated with 82 percent of cultivated area.
Fields of agriculture
- Agricultural Business
- Agricultural Economics
- Agricultural Equipment
- Agricultural Management
- Animal Husbandry
Branches of agriculture
- Fishery (Aquaculture)
- Forestry (Silviculture)
Sectors of agriculture
- Growing of vegetables, crops and fruits
- Growing of trees and logging
- Rearing of poultry and animals
- Production of milk, eggs, etc.
Fodder crops season in Pakistan
- Rabi season
- Kharif season
Rabi crops are also known as the “winter crops” in Pakistan and India. The rabi means, when the crop is harvested. Crops that are grown in the winter season, from November to April are called Rabi crops. Some of the important rabi crops are wheat, barley, peas, mustard, and gram.
Kharif crops are also known as the “summer or monsoon crops” in Pakistan and India. Major Kharif crops include rice, millets, maize, mung bean, cotton, soya bean, sugarcane.
Agricultural land use to achieving
- poverty alleviation
- food security
- overall sustainable development
Agriculture is now a days converting into an agro-based and agro-industry economy.
Role of agriculture in education
College agriculture involves training people to teach or conduct research to advance the fields of agriculture and food science. The higher education sector plays an important role in agricultural research and development through theoretical and practical trainings in various departments i.e. agronomy, forestry at national and international levels around the world.
Role of agriculture in biology or zoology
As a biologist, it reduces disease levels, insect pests and soil erosion. Weeds and insect pests becoming resistant to chemicals. Fungi are a vital part of the huge agricultural industry. The fungi help the plants absorb nutrients and water more efficiently.
Bacteria are economically important to include the production of traditional foods such as yogurt, cheese, and vinegar. Bacteria fixing nitrogen to provide nitrogen fertilizer for some plants, to breaking down organic matter so the plants can use it for food. Microbes are also important in agriculture for the compost and fertilizer production.
As a zoologist, animal science is a branch of zoology that has equipped itself with abilities to manipulate these animals for proper use whereas zoology studies their behavioral patterns. It is concerned with selected animals of which are domesticated.
Agriculture is key to a healthy Biosphere as it provides nutrition which is a key determinant of human health. It provides energy, fuel, wood and medicinal plants.
Food requirements to humans or wild-animals
The population growth rate of Pakistan is increasing rapidly. According to the UNDP (United Nations Development Program) human development report, the population growth rate of Pakistan is 2% per year.
Seasonal crops contain different amounts of protein, carbohydrate and fat contents. In supplemented diets, different amounts or percentages of protein and carbohydrate contents provide to the wild animals for their better growth performance. Proteins are used to make enzymes, hormones, and other body chemicals. Protein is an important building block of bones, muscles, cartilage, skin, and blood.
Humans mostly depend on eggs, milk, sugarcane, wheat, bread, beans, etc. Major source of starch and energy, wheat provides several components (protein, vitamins B, dietary fiber and phytochemicals) which are essential for health. Therefore, proteins in animal nutrition are needed for the growth and regeneration of tissues.
A bean which are used as vegetables for human or animal food. They can be cooked in many ways, including boiling, frying, baking, and in several traditional dishes throughout the world to increase their protein requirements. Beans and legumes are rich in plant protein, fiber, B-vitamins, iron, folate, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, and zinc.
Beans can reduce LDL cholesterol by 5 percent in a day. More legumes are eating as apart from a healthy diet which can help lower blood sugar, blood pressure, heart rate and other heart diseases. Beans are a diabetes superfood.
The American Diabetes Association advises people with diabetes to add dried beans or non-sodium canned beans to several meals each week. They can help manage blood sugar levels better than many other starchy foods.
The primary functions of carbohydrates in the body are to provide store energy, build macromolecules, and spare protein and fats for other purposes.
Glucose energy is stored as glycogen, with the majority of it in the muscle and liver. They are also energy-providing feed components that are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They should make up about 75 percent of an animal diet, they also produce the body heat that helps keep the animal warm.
Dietary fats are essential to give energy and support cell growth to the human body. Fats help the human body to absorb some nutrients and produce important hormones. Mono-saturated fats and polyunsaturated fats are known as the “good fats” because they are good for health and cholesterol. These fats can help to;
- Lower the risk of heart disease and stroke
- Lower LDL cholesterol levels
- Increasing HDL
Avocados, cheese, chia seeds, and olive oil are “super healthy fats” for the growth of humans as well as wild or pet animals.
All kinds of carbohydrates, proteins and fats supplemented diets are obtained from agriculture land by different practices of agriculture in our daily life to fulfill our nutritional requirements.
This article is jointly written by Nargis Naheed¹, Muhammad Dilawaiz Khan², Zunaira Maqsood¹, Zainab Toheed¹, Iqra Mehmood¹ from ¹Department of Zoology, Wildlife and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, ²Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.