What Is Chicken Infectious Anemia (CIA)? And It’s Status In Pakistan

Chicken infectious anaemia also is known as blue wing disease, chicken anaemia virus, anaemia dermatitis syndrome and hemorrhagic aplastic anaemia throughout the world.

Author: Dr. Maria Jamil1, Dr. Kashif Saleemi1, Dr. Ali Raza2, Dr. Muhammad Tahir Aleem3

Chicken infectious anaemia also is known as blue wing disease, chicken anaemia virus, anaemia dermatitis syndrome and hemorrhagic aplastic anaemia throughout the world. CIA caused by genus Gyrovirus can infect all ages of birds. CIA is a non-enveloped icosahedral single-stranded DNA virus. In young chicken CIA causes the immunosuppression, weight loss and high mortality due to vertical transmission. After 2-3 weeks of age, susceptibility to infection frequently reduced. CIA was first recognized in 1979 by Yuasa et al. and seemed to be universal in all major chicken producing countries. Clinical disease is acute with high mortality. Immunosuppression caused by CIA leads to lower production. Clinical disease occurs in young birds up to 3 weeks of age.

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Transmission:

In chicken, the CIA is transmitted horizontally as well as vertically. Virus present in the faeces of infected birds, and spread the virus through faeces to healthy birds even 5-7 weeks after recovery. The virus also presents in the semen of cock and infect the hen during insemination. In the vertical spread, the virus may be exist for 8-14 days post-infection. Virus becomes disappear when antibodies develop.

Clinical sign:

  • Anemia
  • Pale comb and wattle
  • Weight loss
  • Mortality from 5-60%
  • Hematocrit value 6-27% (normal 35-40%)
  • Cyanosis, ecchymosis, lethargy and sudden death
  • Neurological sign include dullness, depression and paresis
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Pathology:

  • Bone marrow yellowish/pinkish and having more fat content
  • Thymus and bursa shrink to disappear
  • Lymphoid tissue atrophy and immunosuppression
  • Hemorrhages on proventriculus, skin and shanks
  • Low PCV and blood is thin, watery and pinkish colored
  • Blood clotting time also delayed due to decreased hematocrit value

 

Diagnosis:

  • Diagnosis on the basis of the clinical sign, low hematocrit value below than 27%.
  • Postmortem finding atrophy of all the lymphoid organs, hemorrhages throughout the tissue, pale and watery bone marrow.
  • ELISA, PCR, indirect immunofluorescent

 

Treatment and Control:

  • There is no specific treatment for infected birds. Culling of infected birds is normally performed.
  • By vaccination of breeder hens, the vertical spread of disease can be controlled.
  • Control is best attained by improved biosecurity and vaccination of breeders.

Disease status in Pakistan:

If birds are not vaccinated then Gumboro, Hydro pericardial syndrome, Inclusion bodies hepatitis comes, and Chicken infectious anemia can be exist contemporarily with it. In Pakistan, every disease arises with its peak, because the likelihood is that in Pakistan there is a group of diseases. Vaccination has done in breeder flock before it reaches to production. In breeder flock a killed vaccine is carried out.  For the first week of life maternal antibodies transferred to chick are strong enough to defend.  

  1. Department of Pathology, Faculty of veterinary science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
  2. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of veterinary science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
  3. MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, 210095 Nanjing, P.R.China
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Author: Dr. Maria Jamil1, Dr. Kashif Saleemi1, Dr. Ali Raza2, Dr. Muhammad Tahir Aleem3

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