An energy crisis management is a society-wide economic problem caused by a constricted supply of energy, leading to diminished availability and increased price to consumers.
Energy Crisis and its management in Pakistan
Consensus definition: An energy crisis is any great shortfall in the supply of energy resources to an economy just like shortage of oil and electricity or other natural resources. The crisis often has effects on the rest of the economy, with many recessions being caused by an energy crisis in some form. Energy crisis in Pakistan was expected and it started in the year 2007 so We will look at the demand and supply of 2018 and expected demand and supply of coming years. Pakistan’s energy sector has become a major drain on the economy and is impeding growth because of power shortages and budgetary impacts of energy subsidies, which divert much-needed resources from more productive sectors.
forms of energy
- renewable energy:
renewable resources often referred to as clean energy, comes from natural sources or processes that are constantly replenished e.g. sunlight and wind.
- non-renewable energy:
Non–renewable energy comes from sources that will run out or will not be replenished in our lifetimes—or even in many, many lifetimes. Most non–renewable energy sources are fossil fuels: coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Carbon is the main element in fossil fuels.
Energy Crisis management
A crisis is a difficult or dangerous time in which a solution is needed — and quickly. crisis caused by a natural disaster might inspire you and your friends to make a donation or consideration. but the energy crisis which is caused by mankind need better resource management along with suitable strategies. Pakistan must develop renewables to manage the energy crises.
Energy management is the means to controlling and reducing a building’s or sector’s energy consumption, which enables owners and operators to: Reduce costs – energy represents 25% of all operating costs in an office building. Reduce carbon emissions in order to meet internal sustainability goals and regulatory requirements.
ENERGY SECTOR IN PAKISTAN
AT PRESENT ENERGY IS GENERATED BY ONLY THREE MODES
- Thermal 65%
2. Hydral 33%
Two main companies that produces electricity in Pakistan
supply and demand
The total power production capacity in country is 25,100 MW and it is falling short of 5000-7000 MW. electricity demand is growing at the rate of 9% but there is 7% decrease in the supply annually. manufacturer companies on smaller or larger level are being affected by this scenario directly. manufacturing industries utilize at least 33 % of production cost in terms of energy cost so to cope with this situation they tend to reduce the labor and services.
Only 55% of the Pakistan’s population has access to electricity and per capita supply is about 520 kWh. At present, the people are facing severe load shedding/blackout problems due to shortage of about 3 GW power supply. Gas and oil have 65% share in conventional electricity generation.
there is a survey showing demand of the economic and household sectors of Pakistan.
1.Household sector 44.2%
4.Government sector 7.4%
6.Street lights 0.7%
supply through power plants
- Thermal power stations
1.WAPDA operates-11 stations
2.KESC operates -4 stations
3. IPPS operates-14 stations independently
- Hydro-power Generation
- Nuclear power generation
Two nuclear reactors of 425 MW power to generate electricity
reasons of energy crises
- ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL INSTABILITY
- FLUCTUATION OF OIL PRICES IN ENERGY MARKET
- FAULTY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
- AGING OF EQUIPMENT
- UNPRODUCTIVE EFFORTS
- MISMANAGEMENT OF ENERGY RESOURCES
Short term plans
- Increase the number of IPPs (independent Power Producers)
- Reactivate the closed power generating units
- Overhaul the existing poor distribution system
- Import electricity to fulfill the current need for industries on ADHOC basis
- Government should have strict check on energy indicators on regular basis to counter such crisis in future.
Medium term plans
- Transformation of existing system to renewable energy resources
- Developing and installing biogas, solar, wind and micro hydro based projects in villages
Long term plans
- Developing and installing coal based powerhouses.
- Initiate agreements for mega projects with the energy extensive countries for sustainable energy resources.
- Exploration of more oil, gas and coal reserves.
- Provide incentive for up gradation and training to the engineers for new technology.
alternatives to cope with energy crisis
According to AEDP (Alternate Energy Development of Pakistan) the current status of electrical energy is as following:
TOTAL INSTALLED CAPACITY: 19505 MW
THERMAL: 12580 MW 65%
HYDRO-POWER: 6463 MW 33%
NUCLEAR : 462 MW 2%
The AEDP is working on alternate energy resources like:
- Free and clean
- 60 km wide (Gharo ~ Kati Bandar) and 180 km long (up to Hyderabad) wind corridor.
- Up to 50,000 MW production potential in Pakistan
- Solar cells convert solar energy in to electricity
- Pakistan has an excellent potential of receiving solar radiations throughout the year.
- Solar Energy is available at a rate of 1000 watts per square meter in Pakistan.
- Cheapest and most suitable for Pakistan
- Pakistan has got the potential of producing 46000 MW of electricity out of which only 6595 MW is produced
Biomass / waste-to-energy
- For 20 years the developed countries are using this technology
- Every city of Pakistan produces thousands of tons of solid waste and millions of gallons water waste
- Biomass can be converted into energy (power generation) and fertilizer.
- Solar thermal power/electric generation systems collect and concentrate sunlight to produce the high temperature heat needed to generate electricity. All solar thermal power systems have solar energy collectors with two main components: reflectors (mirrors) that capture and focus sunlight onto a receiver.
- this is renewable energy source, made from organic matter or wastes which play a valuable role in reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. Biofuels are one of the largest sources of renewable energy in use today. In the transport sector gasoline and diesel are of important resources.
- Biofuel is a clean renewable fuel due to its properties because it is similar to diesel but generated from renewable resources such as vegetable oils, animal fats etc.
- Hydrogen fuel cell is a device which is compact, flexible and highly efficient.
- it is Ultimate non-polluting energy source till now.
- Earth generate and store Geothermal thermal energy which is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. The geothermal energy of the Earth’s crust originates from the original formation of the planet and from radioactive decay of materials.
- Geothermal energy is a clean, renewable resource that can be harnessed for use as heat and electricity as earth generate heat that is called Geothermal energy. (Geo means “earth,” and thermal means “heat” in Greek.).
STEPS TAKEN BY GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN
- FOUR WINDMILLS HAVE BEEN INSTALLED IN COASTAL AREA OF SINDH
- 10 SMALL HYDRO PLANTS WITH A CAPACITY OF 110 MW IN PROGRESS
- BHASHA DAM POLICY WILL BE TAKEN IN TO CONSIDERATION.
- PAKISTAN IS BLESSED AND RICH IN RESOURCES
- POLICIES SHOULD BE IMPLEMENTED IMEGITELY
- POLICIES SHOULD NOT CHANGE WITH THE CHANGE IN GOVERNMENT
- WE CAN EVEN EXPORT ENERGY IF WE PRODUCE IT AT OPTIMUM LEVEL
- We all know that our country is in critical condition and we are looking for international aid but If we want to get rid of this crisis, we have to change our lifestyle. we must stop unnecessary use of energy. Unfortunately, we are adopting luxurious lifestyle instead We should lead a simple life.
- there is a vital need to stop blame games, useless seminars, conferences and events but instead we should do something practically.