Dairy Farming: Scope, Objective and Practices around the World

Dairy farming business depends upon the many elements in which most essential are Animal Health, Nutrition (feed and Water), Milking hygiene, Animal welfare, Environment, Socio-economic Management. All these factors decide the entire dairy farming era.

By  Usama Mujahid

What is Dairy Farming?

Dairy Farming is a sort of Agriculture, or an animal husbandry for the long term milk production at a scale (either on farm or in dairy plant) for human consumptions. Animals which are mostly used in Dairy plants or Dairy farms are called Dairy Animals. The most common dairy animal is Cattle. A Dairy Cattle produce a lot of milk for different uses.

Dairy Farming (Designed by Usama Mujahid)

Objective and Scope

The guiding objective for good dairy farming practice is that safe, quality milk should be produced from healthy animals using management practices that are sustainable from an animal welfare, social, economic and environmental perspective.
To achieve this objective, dairy farmers should apply good practice in the following
areas:
• Animal health
• Milking hygiene
• Nutrition (feed and water)
• Animal welfare
• Environment
• Socio-economic management.
For each of these categories this Guide lists good dairy farming practices, and suggests measures that can be implemented to achieve the desired outcome.

1. Animal Health

Here describes good dairy farming practice to ensure animals that produce milk are healthy and there is an effective health care programme in place. However, not all of the practices are applicable in all circumstances and may be superseded by national, international or market demands. Choose breeds and animals well suited to the local environment and farming system. It is necessary to determine herd size and stocking rate based on management skills, local conditions and the availability of land, infrastructure, feed, and other inputs.

Vaccinate all animals as recommended or required by local animal health authorities. Monitor risks from adjoining land and neighbours and have secure boundaries. Regularly checking animals for signs of disease is crucial. Manage animal diseases that can affect public health (zoonoses)
The suggested good dairy farming practices for animal health are set out under the following outlines:
    1. Establish the herd with resistance to disease.
    2. Prevent entry of disease onto the farm.
    3. Have an effective herd health management programme in place.
    4.Use all chemicals and veterinary medicines as directed.

2. Milking Hygiene

Milking is the defining activity of dairy farming. Consumers demand high standards of milk quality, so milking management aims to minimize microbial, chemical and physical contamination. Milking management covers all aspects of the process of obtaining milk from animals quickly and effectively, while assuring the health of the animals and the quality of the milk.
Consistency in the day-to-day implementation of milking procedures is an important part of good dairy farming practice for milking. This Fact Sheet describes practices that ensure milk is harvested and stored under hygienic conditions, and that the equipment used to harvest and store milk is well maintained. The suggested good dairy farming practices for milking hygiene are set out under the following headings:
Ensure milking routines do not injure the animals or introduce contaminants12 into
milk.
Ensure milking is carried out under hygienic conditions.
Ensure milk is handled properly after milking.

3. Nutrition (Feed & Water)

Milking is the defining activity of dairy farming. Consumers demand high standards of milk quality, so milking management aims to minimize microbial, chemical and physical contamination. Milking management covers all aspects of the process of obtaining milk from animals quickly and effectively, while assuring the health of the animals and the quality of the milk.

 


Consistency in the day-to-day implementation of milking procedures is an important part of good dairy farming practice for milking.
This Fact Sheet describes practices that ensure milk is harvested and stored under hygienic conditions, and that the equipment used to harvest and store milk is well maintained. The suggested good dairy farming practices for milking hygiene are set out under the following headings:
• Ensure milking routines do not injure the animals or introduce contaminants12 into
milk.
• Ensure milking is carried out under hygienic conditions.
• Ensure milk is handled properly after milking.

4. Animal Welfare

In essence, animal welfare is the application of sensible and sensitive animal husbandry practices to the livestock on the farm. Animal welfare is primarily concerned with the wellbeing of the animal. In general, consumers perceive high animal welfare standards as an indicator that food is safe, healthy and of high quality. Animal welfare standards have been incorporated into most on-farm food quality and food safety schemes.
Many animal welfare codes list ‘five freedoms’14 that should underpin best farm practice in relation to animal welfare. These five freedoms provide a comprehensive overall concept of animal welfare.
This Fact Sheet describes good dairy farming practices for animal welfare. They are set
out to reflect the five freedoms:
• Ensure animals are free from thirst, hunger and malnutrition.
• Ensure animals are free from discomfort.
• Ensure animals are free from pain, injury and disease.
• Ensure animals are free from fear.
• Ensure animals can engage in relatively normal patterns of animal behaviour

5. Environment

Increasingly, consumers are concerned that the production of food is sustainable and is undertaken in harmony with the environment. To meet these concerns it is important that dairy farmers produce milk in a way that meets the wider community’s expectations, by using natural resources efficiently and minimizing any adverse impact on the environment. Every dairy farmer can play a role in protecting their industry and the future of their enterprise by adopting management practices that enhance the environmental sustainability of their farming system.
The suggested good dairy farming practices for the environment are set out under the
following headings:
• Implement an environmentally sustainable farming system.
• Have an appropriate waste management system.
• Ensure dairy farming practices do not have an adverse impact on the local environment.

6. Socio-economic Management

Being ‘socially responsible’ and ‘economically sustainable’ are integral to good dairy farming practice as they address two key risks to the farm enterprise.
Managing and looking after the farm’s human resources is critical to the sustainability of the enterprise. In many parts of the world this will primarily apply to the farmer and others living on the dairy farm. However, dairy farmers must also consider the role their enterprise has in the wider community; as an employer, consumer of natural resources and its potential impact on neighbours.


Similarly, dairy farms are businesses producing a product, in this case milk, meat and livestock. Like all businesses, dairy farm businesses must be financially viable to have a long term future.
The suggested good dairy farming practices for the socio-economic management of
dairy farms are:
• Implement effective and responsible management of human resources.
• Ensure farm tasks are carried out safely and competently.
• Manage the enterprise to ensure its financial viability.

 

 

 

Usama Mujahid

The Author; Usama Mujahid belongs to Multan, one of the oldest cities in Pakistan. He is student of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine. As a medical student, he is a dignified, famous, humanitarian, leader and volunteer. He is also an active member of the society. He has done many honors with the younger generation to ensure the global culture of peace, raise the issues of the society nationally and globally. He is also certified from University of London in ''Understanding Research methods'' & from University of Edinburgh in ''Animal Behavior and Welfare''

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