An Overview Of Barley Crop

Barley (also known as Groats) is a cereal crop that is botanically known as Hordeum vulgare L., and it is believed to be originated from Ethopia or Westren Asia.

By Hajra Tabbasam, Samra Gulzar, Riffet Rahim

BARLEY


INTRODUCTION:


The word “baere” is the previous English word ‘barley’ it discovered to proto Indo European and is associated to Latin word farina”Flour”.The nu-derived world ‘baere’ survives in the north of Scotland as bere, and refers to a specific strait of six-row barley. Initially, word Barley-House origin Hordeum vulgare L. Barn. Hordeum word comes from Latin language that is used as a scientific genus name for Barley. Due to the long prickly awns of the ear of grains’ obtained from an Indo-European root which means “bristly. In the world, Barley is ranked in first top five cereal crops. The exact origin of barley is debatable, possibly originating in Egypt, Ethiopia, and the near East of Tibet.

Common name: Barley
Scientific Name: Hordeum vulgare L. Higher Classification: Barleys
Family: Poaceae


In the world, Barley is one of the highest earliest cereal crop. In Arabic its known as “Shaeer” and in Hindi/Urdu well known as “Jav”.After Wheat, rice, and corn barley is the fourth highest cereal crop in the world, and barley has high diversification of environment in growth. Barley is also cited in Surah Yousaf, Verse No. 43, so it is one of the Qur’ânic plant. This Qur’ânic plant finds the place in Prophetic Medicine (sayings and habits of Prophet (PBUH) essential for the healthy life). Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said that Allah has created ailments, and there is no ailment for which he has not created the remedy (Sahih-Al-Bukhari, Volume no. 7, and Hadees No. 582). Barley also used as Tibb-e- Nabwi because our beloved Prophet (PBUH) loved it.


Chemical composition:

Barley Kernels have complex carbohydrates mostly starch, vitamins specially vitamin E, also have a low fat content and in condition of protein to gain the amino acid requirement is moderately well-balanced, and also antioxidant polyphones. Barley is highly malleable to a vast range of environment than any other cereal, with diversification to subarctic, temperate, and subtropical areas.Barley yielding in Pakistan was 165,000 hectares in the year 1994-95; although in sindh was 24,900 hectares. In Pakistan there was 164,000 tones barley production, while its manufacturing in sindh was 12,200 tones.

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Worldwide Distribution:


Russia is the largest producer of barley in world and accounts nearly 32 per cent of the world barley output. Spain is the second largest barley producer; its average annual production is 11.50 million metric tons. Canada produces about 11 million metric tons followed by Germany 11.90 million metric tons. In the world Australia, Ukraine, Turkey, Britain and USA are the prime producers of barley. In tropical areas, barley is sown in winter and it is cultivated in summer season in temperate areas. Barley has excellent capacity of drought resistant. Barley crop have a diversification in soils like as sodic or light, and saline soils. In moderately heavy loam to sandy soils it also gives a higher yield.

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Nutritional Benefit of Barley:


Barley whole kernels comprise of iron, Phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin E, selenium and zinc, furthermore small amounts of calcium, manganese and copper. Barley grain also has a good amount of vitamins such as riboflavin, vitamin B6, thiamine, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6 and foliates.

Medicinal Benefit of Barley:

 Reduces Symptoms of Arthritis
 Helps to Stabilize Blood Pressure
 Barley Grass Juice is Great for Digestion
 Great Source of Niacin
 Reduces Risk of Cancer and Heart Disease
 Lowers Bad Cholesterol  Helps You Lose Weight  Inhibits Formation of Gallstones
 Helps Develop and Repair Body Tissue
 Anti -aging Properties
 Supports the Kidney
 Improves Immunity
 Healing Properties
 Helps to Cure Anemia
 Healthy Bones
 Helps to Prevent Osteoporosis
 Promotes Hair Growth
 Contributes to Healthy Skin
 Reduces Visceral Fat


Conventional Uses of Barley:


Barley is grown for a number of aspects, but they have a vital role in human consumption, malting and animal food. In food and feeding mostly high protein barleys are used, and in the process of malting starchy barley is valued.

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Modern Uses of Barley:
Alcoholic beverages


The distinguish character of barley that separate it from other small-grain cereals such as wheat that is used in human consumption as the form of other solid food derivatives, but preferably in the form of single product as alcoholic beverages Beer. Barley is a key ingredient in beer and whisky production.

Nonalcoholic beverages


In Italy, barley is commonly used as a coffee substitute well familiar as “Coffee of Barley”. Roasted barley tea and Barley water are mostly used as nonalcoholic drinks which are made by boiling barley in water.

Side Effect of Barley:

 Flatus / Intestinal Gas
 Stomach
 Constipation
 Rectal Bleeding
 Fungal Contamination
 Allergic Reactions
 Bakers’ Asthma
 Ruptured Esophagus
 Reduced Blood Sugar  Surgical Complications
 Celiac Disease


Virtually, it is a wheat allergy that commonly occurs by gluten intolerance. Barley contains a huge amount of gluten, thereby making the condition even worse.

Disease Attack on Barley:


There are 4 rusts which can attack barley: … barley stem rust (Puccinia graminis) is slightly common, but cause a serious crop loss in favorable year. Barley stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) is currently an exotic disease.

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