Garlic (Allium sativum), The Most Important Medicinal Plant, Its Chemical Ingredients & Pharmacologically Valuable In COVID-19

Garlic (A.  sativum) is one of the most important medicinal plant belongs to family lilliaceae. Throughout world  garlic knowns with different names such as Lahsun in Urdu, Saum in Arabic, Fum in Quran, Seer in Persian, Lahsuna in Hindi and Skordon in Greek.

By Ali Raza, Maria Naqve University of Agriculture Faisalabad

Introduction:

We are living in advance age with respect to every field of life. In this age medical field explore much in every aspect such as in diagnose, cure and Treatments. Day by day researches explore and facilitate the medical field. Nobody cannot deny the advancement of medical field. As medical field advanced, its way of cure is changing day by day, synthetic supplements are used instead of plant supplements but we can never replace plant based supplements with synthetic one.

Garlic (A.  sativum) is one of the most important medicinal plant belongs to family lilliaceae. Throughout world  garlic knowns with different names such as Lahsun in Urdu, Saum in Arabic, Fum in Quran, Seer in Persian, Lahsuna in Hindi and Skordon in Greek.

Garlic is biennial herb vary in size from 30cm to 60cm tall, basal swollen bulb on disk like stem, bear several segments (clove) , enclosed in a single membrane . Single clove further enclosed in protective sheath.

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Garlic (A. sativum) is monocot, has a single leaf when it begins to sprout, Angiosperm, flowering plants, has linear, flat and solid blade like leaves, 1 to 2.5 cm wide, and 30 to 60 cm long with acute  apex .

garlic

 

1

Nutritional value of Garlic(A. sativum)

1:                                    Organic compound/100gram

Carbohydrate

33.06 g

Dietary fiber

2.1 g

Fat

0.5 g

Protein

6.36 g

Energy

623 kJ (149 K cal)

 

2:                                         Vitamins/100 gram

Thiamin

0.2mg (17%)

Niacin

0.7mg (5%)

Riboflavin

0.11mg (9%)

Folate

3 ug (1%)

Vitamin B6

1.235mg (95%)

Vitamin C

31.2mg (38%)

Pantothenic Acid

0.596mg (12%)

 

3:                                        Minerals/100gram

 

Calcium

181mg (18%)

Magnesium

25mg (7%)

Iron

1.7mg (13%)

Potassium

401mg ( 9%)

Phosphorus

153mg (22%)

Sodium

17mg (1%)

Zinc

1.16mg (12%)

Selenium

14.2 ug

Manganese

1.672mg (80%)

 

Pharmacological effects of Garlic (A. sativum):

A number of experiment on garlic (A. sativum) proved that it contains several sulfur containing compounds, Allicine, Diallyl Trisulfide, Ajeone  etc, are the cause of many health benefits due to  antimicrobial, antioxidant, cholesterol lowering, blood thinning , and anti-aging

garlic

properties, and also play an important role in garlic’s anticancer properties. In the following context pharmacological values of garlic against COVID-19 has discussed.

Causal agents of COVID-19 is virulent ( causes destruction of host /cell by lysis) Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrom-Coronavirus-2(SARS-CoV-2)virus . This family is also responsible for many infections in past and recent days, in 2003 SARS, in 2012 MERS(Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) and in recentCOVID-19 .The people with weak imumune system ,elderly patients, children or patients with pre-existing infections.

garlic

In these critical condition of COVID-19,there is no antivral supplements /vaccines available against this serious lethal infection. Only strong immune system can defend this virus. Different plants and animals based food supplements that strengthen the immune system. Garlic is one top of plant that develops and strengthen the immune system.

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Sulfur-containing compound in garlic (A. sativum) responsible for  up regulation of immune system, anti-inflamatory,anti-tumor,anti-diabetic,anti-atherosclerotic  and cardioprotective complexes.Sulfur constitute display immunomodulatory properties that could preserve the homeostasis of the human immune system.  These natural immune boosters present in the garlic(A. sativum) are beneficial over synthetic drugs due to their lower cost, decreased or even eliminated toxicity, and few adverse effects.

Cultural intake of garlic (A. sativum)

Throughout the World garlic use in various ways for different treatments.

The following methods for intake garlic, build immunity against various viruses,bacterias and fungi.

In Pakistan:

Hot water extract of dried bulb is taken orally as chest pain relief, carminative, expectorant and febrifuge.

In Haiti:

Decoction  of fresh bulb is taken orally for cutaneous infections; hot water extract is taken orally for malnutrition; the juice is taken orally for bronchitis, and butanol extract is taken orally for pneumonia.

In Saudi Arabia:

Hot water extract of dried bulb is taken orally as a diuretic and for diabetes, rheumatism, pyrexia, intestinal worms, colic, flatulence and menstrual suppression, and mixed with sour milk, for stomach painAs362. Hot water extract of fresh bulb is taken orally for diabetes, rheumatism, pyrexia, intestinal worms, colic, flatulence, menstrual suppression, hepatitis, piles, dysentery, tuberculosis, rheumatism, colic, facial paralysis, hypertension, diabetes and bronchitis, and as an aphrodisiac.

In Nigeria:

Dried entire plant, soaked in juice of Citrus aurantifolia and a pinch of copper sulfate, is administered orally to children to treat convulsions. The mixture is left for 4 days in a bottle. Only a small quantity is to be given; excess results in vomiting or runny stool. To treat yellow fever, 1 to 2 handfuls of leaflets, ground with 1 small bulb of Allium sativum, is taken orally with “Pap”. Fresh bulb is taken orally as a tonic, antirheumatic, antipyretic, hypotensive and analgesic.

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In India:

Hot water extract of dried bulb, mixed with an equal amount of honey, is taken once daily for 3 days to treat whooping cough. Hot water extract of dried seeds is taken orally as an emmenagogue. Infusion of the entire plant, along with sugar, is taken orally to treat fever.

In Thailand:

Decoction of fresh bulb is taken orally as an anti-inflammatory, and the crushed bulb is used as a poultice on inflamed jointsAS464. Hot water extract of dried bulb is used externally for treating wounds and toothache, and for leprosy, and taken orally for epilepsy and chest pain.

In USA:

Fresh bulb is taken orally to treat infectious diseases, lung diseases and tuberculosis, and as a blood purifier and stimulant.

In West Indies:

Clove tea is used for intestinal worms. Hot water extract of the bulb is taken orally for hypertension, and butanol extract is rubbed on the abdomen to facilitate parturition. Essential oil is taken orally as an antispasmodic, antimicrobial, diuretic, anti-asthematic .

In Unani medicine:

The butanol  extract is  used as an emmenagogue by fumigation inhalation and in the form of a pessary.

In China:

Hot water extract of the bulb is taken orally to treat high blood pressure, and for amenorrhea

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