Mustard (Brassica campestris L.) Is A Small, Branching, Green-Stemmed, Yellow-Flowered Plant

According to the Sanskrit histories about 300 BC ago Mustard is recorded as one of the first domesticated crop and oldest spices.

By HUMA RIAZ

1 History of Mustard

It was actually a condiment originally and the word mustard derived from the Latin word “mustum. Mustum ardens also known as the burning or hot must which was the Roman speciality condiment which formed by mixing the must (the expressed juice of grapes or other fruits) with the ground mustard seeds. (PDF) Mustard.html.

India has been known as having a long tradition of Brassica crops. It is believed that around 1800 BC Aryans came to northwestern India and with the help of original inhabitants learned the uses of brassica oil. Approximately 90%of the area is occupied by the B.juncea under cultivation for brassica oilseeds

In 1910, improvements in Brassica was initiated by India. In Eastern Uttar Pradesh an experiment was done in which hybridization of yellow sarson is proceeded with the brown sarson which results in the formation of the new form known as “toria.Since from that time there are a huge  progress in breeding and cytogenetics, genetics and biotechnology which  has led to the formation  of varieties that directly helped out to increase the  production which is  1 million t in 1910  and then turns to 6 million t in 2000–2005. 

2 Introduction

According to the world oilseed production after Glycine max (L.), Brassica campestris (L.) is the second largest oilseed crop. Commonly known as field mustard and sarson.Brassica – an overview _ ScienceDirect Topics.html.

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 Habit and habitat:

Annual herb, cultivated for seeds which yield oil. Root: Tap and branched. Stem: Herbaceous erect, cylindrical, solid, glabrous or hairy.Leaf:Simple, alternate, exstipulate, lower ones lyrate and upper oblong or lanceolate, unicostate reticulate venation, hairy, sessile.

 Its seed has been mentioned twice in the “Quran”:

  1. 1. And We shall set up balances of justice on the Day of Resurrection, then none will be dealt with unjustly in anything. And if there be the weight of a mustard seed, We will bring it. And Sufficient are We as Reckoners. [21:47]
  2. 2. O my son! If it be (anything) equal to the weight of a grain of mustard seed, and though it be in a rock, or in the heavens or in the earth, Allah will bring it forth. Verily, Allah is Subtle (in bringing out that grain), Well-Aware (of its place). [31:16]

By keeping in mind the phytochemical composition of Brassica one can easily perceived the contribution of these vegetables to health improvements. These are used as ingredients of salads and frozen vegetables or after cooking of raw throughout the year.

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3 Chemical Composition:

Brassica vegetables are rich in vitamin C, vitamin K, manganese, and soluble fiber, and they contain glucosinolates under the initial study of their potential properties when consumed. Brassicas usually provide adequate protein and leafy varieties such as kale or rape, with 20-25% protein in the tops but close to only 10% of stems. Root varieties such as turnips have about 15% protein in the tops and about 8% in the roots. They are all very digestible, with DM digestibility of almost 90%. Moisture content is also high with DM content up to 7-8%.

4 Uses of the Brassica Oil:

  • Seeds are widely used as a cooking medium
  • After the extraction of oils from seeds the leftover is used as cattle feed which is highly nutritious
  • This leftover also used as soil fertilizer.

4.1. Medicinal uses

According to the Epidemiological studies, cancers of the alimentary tract and lungs have been cured with the help Brassica vegetables. Some medicinal uses are given as

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Breast cancer
  • Prostate cancer
  • Decrease inflammation
  • Reduce the symptoms of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or asthma
  • Lower cholesterol levels
  • Protect from heart disease
  • Antifungal and antiseptic effects
  • Speed up metabolism
  • Improve the function of digestive system
  • Helpful in reducing the frequency of migraines
  • For lowering high blood pressure
  • Prevent atherosclerosis.
  • Prevent hair loss and improve hair quality by massaging your scalp with mustard oil
  • Stimulating salivation and improving appetite.
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4.2. Nutritional Value

The fiber content of Brassicas is low (15%) and should be given enough roughage to aid digestion. Other nutrients and nutrients found in mustard seeds and mustard vegetables are calcium, iron, manganese, phosphorus, zinc, niacin, dietary fiber and essential omega 3 fatty acids.

5 Side Effects of Mustard

  • Using large amounts, such as those found in mustard extract, may cause abdominal pain, diarrhea and inflammation of the intestines.

6 Disease Attack on Mustard

  • The mustard crop is often attacked by many diseases which leads to significant crop losses.
  • Diseases like Alternaria Blight and White rust cause about 10-70% damage.
  • Brassicaceae family attacked by the major diseases which are as follows:

               Diseases                                 Causative agents

  1. Alternaria Blight                            Alternaria brassicae
  2. Downy mildew                              Peronospera brassicae
  3. Rusts                                               Cystopus candidus
  4. Powdery mildew                            Erysiphe poligoni

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