The ‘Ginger’ is an English word and different languages called by different names such as, in Urdu called ‘Adrak’ and in scientifically called Zingiber officinale.
By Fazeela Zarin, Rifat Batool
They belong to the Zingiberaceae family. The modern name of ginger is derived from the Middle English gingivere, but based on its presence this spice dates back over 3000 years to the Sanskrit word srngaveram, meaning “horn root” it was renamed ziggiberis in Greek, and zinziberiberi in Latin. Its spicy aroma is mainly due to the presence of ketones, especially the gingerols, which appear to be the primary component of ginger studied in much of the health-related scientific research. The rhizome, which is the horizontal stem from which the roots grow, is the main portion of ginger that is consumed.
Ginger plays an important role in medical purposes. It is used for the treatment of different diseases like nausea and vomiting. Osteoarthritis, diabetes, migraine headaches, and fat losses. It also contains iron, vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C.
To meet its domestic demand, Pakistan imports ginger because most people prefer to season meat, pulses, and vegetables. Ginger is cultivated in few cities of Pakistan. In which Sindh region are important such as, Mirpurkhas, Umerkot, jamshoro, Hyderabad, Tando allahyar, and Badin are included. In Pakistan ginger has yearly cultivated in 30 thousand per acre.
Area and production: The production of ginger in Pakistan is not enough to satisfy local requirements. Its commercial production on a wide scale is limited to only 10 districts in the upper, middle, and lower Sindh.
Propagation: Ginger is propagated on each piece by its stem rhizome cut into small pieces with one or two eye-buds, producing new shoots within 8-10 days after sowing. It can also be sown on flatbeds and ridges and its seeds should not be deeply planted.
Different diseases and insects are attacked on the ginger plant, but the Chinese rose beetle because bad effect on the ginger plant. Both larvae and adults cause damage to plants. Typically, three larval stages and a pupa or grub stage take 100 days to go through their life cycle. If you dig a little below the surface, a big white grub will usually be found. Before returning to the leafy hummus at the base of nearby plants, Chinese rose beetle come out at dusk and feed for a couple of hours, and make a hole in a leaf.
This species tiny elliptical eggs are laid in the soil within 1-1/2 inch of the surface. The eggs gradually turn dull creamy white before hatching in 7-16 after becoming white at oviposition. This insect has 3 larval stages that last about a week each. Stout, C-shaped, white grub with a conspicuous head and short legs form the larval forms of this insect. The period of the larval stages is 3-4 weeks.
Grubs do not invade live plant tissues, but live preferably on loose, rich soil, leaf litter, or compost. When initially developed, pupas are yellowish-white and eventually become brown. The entire surface is coated densely with minute hairs. Around ½- ¼ inch pupa. In 1-2 weeks, production will be done. The adults are strong beetle, pale reddish-brown, and around ½ inch in length. The body is covered with fine fur, which can give a greyish look to the beetle. In 6-7 weeks they complete their life cycle (egg-adult)
‘Shot-hole’ appearance of leaves; whole leaves eaten with exception of the veins of the leaves; the adult insect is reddish-brown beetles that feed at night on plants.
At night, the Chinese rose beetle feeds and attacks more than 250 plants, from ornamental trees to leafy vegetables. The reddish-brown and roughly ½ inch long adult rose beetle. Chinese rose beetle come out at dusk and feed on the base of nearby, plants for a few hours before returning to the leafy hummus.
Chinese rose beetle is drawn to dim light and repelled by bright light, bright light on plants can help discourage them from feeding; it can help to protect plants when they are mature enough to withstand beetle attack by covering young plants with, For example, floating row covers.
· Beetle trap
Place the rose beetle trap near the plants you want to protect in the garden. Apply a few drops of dishwashing soap and fill the bowl with water. The light will attract rose beetles and they will fall into the water. The soap discourages them from healing.
· Chemical control
Different chemicals used for the control of Chinese rose beetle but imidacloprid and azadirachtin are most important in one of them.