Introduction To Bipolar Disorder:

Bipolar disorder  is a mind problem that causes changes in an individual’s mind-set, energy, and capacity to work. Individuals with bipolar disorder experience extreme emotional stress that normally happens during unmistakable times of days to weeks, called mind-set scenes

By IQRA TARIQ  , SANIA ZUBAIR

HISTORY OF BIPOLAR DISORDER: Aretaeus of Cappadocia started the process in dealing with diseases in the medical field in the first century in Greece. He deals with one of two diseases like mania and depression. The ancient Greeks were accountable for the two terms like mania and melancholia which today is named as mania and depression. According to Greek and Romans lithium salts were used as treatment for mania and depression. Their view was that lithium salts relax the manic people and lift the spirits of depressed people.

STUDY OF BIPOLAR DISORDER IN 17 CENTURY:

Robert Burton in 17th century wrote the book called as 

“THE ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLYthat was basically for the people suffering from melancholy and they were treated using dances and music. It deeply explained the concept of which today is known as clinical depression. After this THEOPHILUS published the work called SEPULCRETUM . In his work he linked the two terms called mania and melancholy in a condition known as “manico-melancholicus.”

19th and 20th CENTURY DISCOVERIES in BIPOLAR DISORDER

Kraplien was the first person to diagnose mental illness. His work called as MANIC DEPRESSIVE INSANITY AND PARANOI  which briefly tells us about the difference between manic depressive and praecox which is now known as schizophrenia.

The historical backdrop of bipolar disorder changed with Emil Kraepelin, a German therapist who split away from Sigmund Freud’s hypothesis that society and the suppression   of  wants  assumed an enormous part in psychological illness. Kraplien was the first person to diagnose mental illness. His work called as MANIC DEPRESSIVE INSANITY AND PARANOI  which briefly tells us about the difference between manic depressive and praecox which is now known as schizophrenia.

COMPARISON RATIOS OF BIPOLAR DISORDERS IN MALE AND FEMALE

COMPARISON:

MALES:

  • Beginning is normally prior in life than it is for females. 
  • Mania episodes are for the most part more normal and more extreme than they are for ladies. 
  • During hyper scenes, they might be more inclined to forceful practices
  • Indications may happen less regularly than for ladies, yet symptoms are additionally commonly more serious in general. 

FEMALES:

  • Beginning ordinarily happens later than it accomplishes for males.
  • Depressive episodes are more common than they are for men. 
  • They are bound to be misdiagnosed with depressive disorder.
  • They are more inclined to going through bipolar disorders quickly. 
  • By and large, they are bound to have tension, PTSD, sleep deprivation, and other co-happening difficulties. 

Types of bipolar disorder:

  • Bipolar 1
  • Bipolar2

Symptoms of bipolar:

  1. BIPOLAR 1:

For the diagnosis of bipolar1 disorder, it necessary to meet the following criteria for a manic episode. The manic episode may have been preceded by may be followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes.

1] Manic episode:

A distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expensive or irritable mood and abnormally and persistent increased goal-directed activity or energy, lasting at 1 week and present most of the day, nearly every day or any duration if hospitalization is necessary.

a] Hypomanic episode:

A distant period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive or irritable mood and it lasting at least 4 consecutive days and present most of the day , nearly everyday. During this period of mood disturbance and increased energy or activity.

b] Major depressive episode:

Five or more of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2-week period and represent a change from previous functioning.

BIPOLAR 2:

For a diagnosis of bipolar2 disorder, it is necessary to meet the following criteria for current or past hypomanic episode:

  1. Hypomanic Episode:

A distant period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive or irritable mood and abnormally and persistently increased activity or energy, lasting for 4 consecutive days and present most of the day, nearly everyday. During this episode of mood disturbances and increased energy and activity.

 Major depressive Episode:

Five or more of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2-week period and represent a change from previous functioning; at least one of the symptoms is either (1) depressed Mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure.

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF BIPOLAR DISORDER:

CAUSES: Bipolar disorder seems to result from a mix of variables.

Genetic variables: Bipolar disorder is more normal in the individuals who have a relative with the condition. Various hereditary highlights might be included. 

Natural characteristics: Researches have shown that imbalances in neurotransmitters and hormones cause this disorder to rise at its peak.. 

Environmental components: Life occasions, like maltreatment, mental pressure, a “huge misfortune,” or another awful accident, may trigger an underlying scene in a defenseless individual.

EFFECTS OF BIPOLAR DISORDER:

1] ON CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM:

  • Heart palpitations
  • Quick pulse
  • An expanded heart beat

2] ON CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM:

  • Sadness
  • Feeling of gulit
  • forgetfulness

3] ON SKELETAL MUSCLES:

Bipolar disorder doesn’t straightforwardly influence the bones and muscles, however on the off chance that we can experience depression scenes, these can influence our skeletal and solid frameworks.

4]  ON GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Sickness
  • vomiting

5] ON ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: Bipolar disorder can make changes our drive. Mania may put your sex drive on over-burden, while wretchedness can fundamentally diminish it.

TREATMENT OF BIPOLAR DISORDER:

HEALTHY ROUTINE:

  •  Eat dinners and snacks at set occasions for the duration of the day. 
  • Increment our intake of vegetables, lean proteins, and entire grains. 
  • Get seven to nine hours of rest every evening. 

STRUCTURING THE DAY:When scheduling our day by day daily task, be certain to save sufficient time for resting and relaxing. Being too busy at work can intensify depressive symptoms and cause dissatisfaction.

AVOID FOR BEING ISOLATED FROM EVERYONE:At the point when you’re depressed, social circumstances can appear to be overpowering. We may want to be distant from everyone else, except it’s significant not to disconnect yourself. Being separated from everyone else can expand the symptoms of depression.

USING DRUGS:

  • Mood stabilizers, like lithium 
  • antidepressants 
  • second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) 

PSYCHOTHERAPY:

Through COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY (CBT) and different methodologies, the individual can figure out how to: 

  • perceive and find ways to oversee key triggers, like stress
  • recognize early manifestations of a scene and find ways to oversee it 
  • work on factors that help keep a steady mind-set for as far as might be feasible 
  • connect with the assistance of relatives, educators, and associates

REFERENCES : 1] HISTORY OF BIPOLAR DISORDER

2]TREATMENT OF BIPOLAR DISORDER

https://www.psycom.net/bipolar-gender-differences

3] BOOK ON PSYCOLOGY:

DSM5

4] EFFECTS OF BIPOLAR DISORDER:

https://www.healthline.com/health/bipolar-disorder/effects-on-the-body – Endocrine-system

IQRA TARIQ

IQRA TARIQ

I am a motivated scientific researcher who have a courage to do a part in scientific world.

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