Depleting And Deteriorating Under Catastrophic Impact Of Climate Change That Negatively Influence Production Potential Of Major Agri Crops.
“Agriculture Is The Major Source Of Subsistence For The Millions Of The People. It Is The Main Sector That Plays A Vibrant Role In The Economy Of The Countries Round The Globe But At The Same Time It Is The Most Vulnerable Sector To The Climate Change”.
The Population Of The World Are Increasing At The Alarming Rate But Land Resources Are Stagnant. Though, They Are Depleting And Deteriorating Under The Catastrophic Impact Of Climate Change That Negatively Influence The Production Potential Of The Major Agricultural Crops. The extensive increase in global population is putting wide spread pressure on scarce natural resources to meet the ever increasing food demand of the burgeoning people.
“Climate change is basically change in the particular pattern of a weather that found over a place”.
It is mainly the change in earth’s climate. It may be happens due to change in earth’s average temperature, rising of sea level, variation in rainfall pattern, increasing greenhouse emissions and due to many other anthropogenic activities. Tremendous variation in climate change endangered agriculture because crop production is highly susceptible to extreme variations. From the past few decade the problem is intensified and it changes too rapidly that incapable the living entities to adapt. Eventually suffering the millions of the people globally.
Major Causes of Climate change
As it becomes the major devastating catastrophe, it largely happens due to natural and as well as anthropogenic activities such as increased emissions of heat trapping gases commonly known as GHGs (greenhouse gases), elevated level of carbon dioxide by burning of fossil fuels and automobile emissions, incredible rise of sea level, temperature fluctuation, global warming, depletion of ozone layer and floods. According to NASA, 97% scientists percepts that more than 50 percent of the global warming effect is due to human activities.
Similarly with the rapid expansion of the industrialization, deforestation, extensive use of automobiles and burning of fossil fuels to meet the energy requirement enhanced the level of CO2 (carbon dioxide) in the atmosphere. IPCC concluded that level of carbon dioxide has rise to 400 ppm in last 150 years.
Deforestation in another major leading course of climate change, it contributes about 24 % in greenhouse emissions and rise global temperature. According to the estimate of GLADA (Global Assessment of Land Degradation and Improvement) about 1/4th of land area degraded under the menace process of degradation as a result of nutrient loss and desertification caused by global climate change.
Diverse Impact of climate change on Agriculture
Growth and development of agricultural crops is dependent on various environmental factors. Consequently crop growth, phenology and yield negatively affected by changes in global climate. Every crop has specific temperature and water requirement for the production potential of yield but the fluctuation in temperature and irreversible shifts in pattern of rainfall reduce crop yield. Among others cotton is a major export crop of Pakistan it is also vulnerable to temperature variation and water scarcity. About 50% decline in agricultural production is occurring due to extreme weather events.
Agriculture is the major sector that is extremely susceptible to the climatic variation, it not only affect the availability of the food, diminish excess to the food but also disrupt the quality of food. The major climatic changes such as projected variation in temperature, extensive variation in pattern of precipitation, reduced availability of water and vibrant changes in weather events significantly reduced production potential of agriculture. Smog is also result of environmental pollution and climate change.
According to estimate it is observed that only 9% of agricultural area of world is contributing to production while 91% area is under severe treat of stresses which occur in various combinations. Abiotic stresses jeopardize the more than 50% production of agricultural crops and climate change intensified the problem manifold by increasing the intensity of adverse impact. Consequently variation in global climatic events disrupts the crop phenology, developmental potential and productive yield.
Spatiotemporal Variation in Precipitation Pattern
Tough, water is indispensable for plant growth but climatic variation influence the availability of water by bringing variation in precipitation pattern, drought, melting of glaciers, floods and intrusion of salty water thus affect the plant growth. The water requirements of the plants vary according to their variety, growth stage and living habitat. Crop production potential and yield are severely reduced due to extreme variations in precipitation patterns and weather.
Among various resources of water, rainfall is one of the most dominant climatic factor as it has two diverse effects by acting as catastrophic agent causing floods and insufficient precipitation leads to droughts. Rainfall threatens agriculture sector more drastically, as heavy rainfall of greater intensity damage the crops and caused economic loss to the farming community. Climate variability not only affecting the crop production by extensive variation in pattern of water availability as drought and flood, but it also influence the crop metabolic and biochemical reactions that retard crop yield.
Climate change cause variation in hydrological cycle that diminish the availability of fresh water. Spatiotemporal variation of rainfall along with warmer temperature was observed in the past few decades, that caused continuous catastrophic event such as flooding and extreme drought eventually retard fresh water availability in many rivers all over the globe. The diminish water availability further aggravate the problem due to explosive increase in world population
Impulsive Variation in Temperature
Climate change also bring variation in global temperature on large scale that affects all the living creatures of the world. Agricultural crops required specific temperature during different growth stages according to their growth habitat. Variation in temperature negatively affect the growth by influencing growth cycle. Elevated temperature reduced grain yield by inducing grain sterility and diminishes the duration of grain filling.
Crops are extremely sensitive to variability in temperature as well as water availability. The temperature requirement of crops vary depending upon cultivar, growth habitat and genetic make up of the crop. High temperature is affect brutally by diminishing economic yield of the crops. Elevated temperature damage plants by accelerating development and shortening of growth period that reduce yield. Many anthropogenic activities are also responsible for rise in global temperature.
According to an estimate global temperature were risen than average temperature of twentieth –century. Many important agriculture crops such as wheat, chick pea and mustard retard or stagnant crop growth due to intensive increase in temperature.
The major consideration of the study is to recognize the impact of spatiotemporal variation of climate change on productivity of agricultural crops. In the modern era climate change is the major catastrophe that threaten the agriculture due to their long lasting effect. The response of the crops vary according to space and time in different part of the globe. Therefore it indispensable to adapt modern technologies for sustainability of agricultural activities to meet the food demand of burgeoning people. Besides these develop modern plant breeds that adapt under variable climate.