Properties of Aloe Vera plant in healing of cutaneous wounds

Despite various modern skin cares and treatments, using herbal products like aloe vera plant plays an indispensable role in wound healing

Despite various modern skin cares and treatments, using herbal products like aloe vera plant plays an indispensable role in wound healing

Wounds cause discomfort and are more susceptible to infection and other difficult complications. Some diseases like diabetes, immuno-compromised conditions and ischaemia due to burn often leads to delay in wound healing. Infection is a major complication of burn injury and is responsible for 50-75% of hospital deaths. Wound healing consists of an orderly progression of events that re-establish the integrity of the damaged tissue. Many of the synthetic drugs currently used for the treatment of wounds are not only expensive. But also pose problems such as allergy, drug resistance. This situation has forced the scientists to seek alternative drugs. Discover agents that can promote healing and thereby reduce the cost of hospitalization. And save the patient from amputation or other severe complications.

More than 80% of the world’s population still depends upon traditional medicines for their ailments. Especially for wound management, as they provide a moist environment to encourage the establishment of the suitable environment.


The skin plays an important role in protection from the body internal environment. The largest organ in human’s body, so exertion or serious injury to this organ may cause problem in its endurance. Skin is composed of two layers of epidermis and dermis that positioned over the subcutaneous adipose. Epidermis mainly contains keratinocyte layers in which some other types of cells have spread, including melanocytes and Langerhans cells. Epidermis separate from dermis by the basal membrane. Dermis is consisting of papillary and reticular cells. That include extracellular matrix or the basal substance include of collagen, fibrous networks, elastin, and glycosaminoglycans. Despite various modern skin cares and treatments, using herbal products like aloe vera gel plays an indispensable role in wound healing.

Pharmacological Characteristics

Aloe vera is a plant that belongs to Liliaceae family that grows easily in hot and arid regions. The existing mucilage tissue at the centre of leaves in this plant, that is also so-called aloe gel. It’s used for various cosmetics and medical applications. The peripheral leaf cells in this plant produce bitter and yellow-color latex that’s called aloes. Aloe vera is one of the plants, which can be noticed in this regard.

Aloe vera or yellow aloe is the herbaceous and perennial plant with thick, succulent, and long leaves. The margin of its leaves is a little curled with thistle. Its flowers placed in beautiful clustering form at the end of florescent stem axis with green to yellow color. Aloe vera endemic to African regions and it is also called desert lily.

The Egyptians used aloe vera plant for treatment of wounds, burnings, and infections for the first time. After them, Greeks, Spanish, and African peoples used aloe vera plant by various techniques for several purposes.

Chemical Constituents

Aloe vera plant compose of anthracene hydroxyl derivatives. It includes aloins A and B2, with total 25–40% of chromone compounds. And derivatives such as aloe resins A, B2, and C. The other important compounds in aloe vera plant include several sugars such as glucose, mannose and cellulose. And various enzymes like oxidase, amylase, and catalase and also vitamins consisting of B1, B2, B6, C, E, and folic acid and Minerals like calcium, sodium, magnesium, zinc, copper and chrome

Healing Mechanism

Its healing property is related to a compound that’s called glucomannan, which is enriched with polysaccharides like mannose. The glucomannan affects fibroblast growth factor and stimulates the activity and proliferation of these cells. In turn, improves collagen production and secretion. The mucilage of aloe vera not only increases the amount of collagen on the wound site, but also increases transversal connections among these bands. Rather than creation of change in collagen structure and as a result accelerates wound improvement.

Due to reduced financial load and its medical effects, these plants notice by the people. Several plants used traditionally in treatment of many skin wounds and burnings in various points of the world; among them one can refer to plants of jujube, mountain germander, olibanum, and also portulaca. Whose effect has proved during trend of healing of burning wounds in rats as one of the plants with a very long history of healing of skin wounds and burnings.

After creation of skin wound, the inflammatory responses and collagen rising production start by the cells in dermal area. Which has been followed by rearrangement of epithelial tissue, and it depends on many factors. This is a physiological process and many factors may intervene in it including growth factors and cytokines in quality of its trend. The wound healing aim at its therapy at the minimum possible time and with the least amount of pain and ache and scar for the patient.


Aloe vera accelerated wound healing by strongly promoting fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation and moderately stimulating cell migration. Surprisingly, aloe vera also shows protective effects against preservative-induced death of keratinocytes. These protective effects of Aloe vera have not previously described and may explain some positive effects of Aloe vera for treating wounds. However, further studies need to be conducted in order to identify which components of the Aloe vera plant aid in the wound healing process. These studies could lead to the production of specific treatment regimens for skin wounds. Improving the treatment of wound healing and tissue repair can enhance the quality of life of patients with wounds, as well as reduce wound-related health care costs.

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