Scientists have always researched how to produce high quality and safe products in order to meet the needs of customers. Nowadays, scientific technology and advanced methods secure the production of high-precision products in terms of free from bioligical, physical and chemical contaminations.
Authors: Mahvish ,Wissam Dayoub
Prepared by the student Wissam Dayoub
Hazard Analysis And Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a management system that is widely used in all forms of agricultural production in all stages of manufacturing, from harvesting to product packagingto achieve food safety and control the points at which food begins to spoil . Milk is one of the most important products because it contains important nutrients such as protein, fat, vitamins and mineral salts. It has many characteristics that distinguish it from other agricultural products , One of its characteristics is that it is complex composition and quickly spoils the product of the complete milking of the cow and it comes out from the udder of the cow and contains a large number of germs in addition to being of medium acidity (pH=6.4-6.6) . In the term HACCP, the word Hazard refers to the risks during the manufacturing process, for example, milk spoilage due to the influence of temperature. Milk spoils quickly if it is not preserved by refrigeration (40C) because it contains microorganisms that start to be active at normal temperatures. Therefore, care must be taken and plans are made to avoid spoilage. In addition, milk is affected by many factors. For example, if we want to boil or sterilize milk using heat, the components of milk will be destroyed because the lactose is subjected to thermal disintegration. When heating is greater than 115 c , the lactose melts and turns into a light yellow color. Continuous heating turns into a brown color and then begins Then it breaks down into simple compounds and a compound is formed Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and by Continuous heating to Acidum formicum , which stimulates lactic bacteria to manufacture yoghurt. The Conditions conducive to the activity of microorganisms must be analyzed . Each stage of the processing process is controlled by the risks and dangers to you through the management system (HACCP). The HACCP system is based on the following 7 principles: Identify potential hazards, Identify critical control points (CCP) , Establish critical limits, Establish and implement effective monitoring procedures at CCPs , Establish a corrective actions when the critical point is out of, Establish out lined above are working effectively, Establish documents and records.Critical Limites are : Time , Temperature , Moisture , and Acidity .
Monitoring should be done to ensure product quality: Sensory monitoring (sight, taste, smell) Chemical monitoring (checking pH levels – chemical analysis of components) physical monitoring: temperature – pressure and weight. Milk collection centers must be set up where, after arrival, the containers are checked, sensory tests are conducted on the milk and the information is recorded. The milk is then weighed, then passes through a filter to filter, then the milk is cooled and then stored. Processing steps : Raw milk – Collection and Reception – Preheating (35-400c) – Filtration and clarification – storage in tank – standardization – Pasteurization – Homogenzation – Packaging – Cold storage .
For example, we can talk about the famous UHT method : UHT is an Ultra-High-Temperature treatment, which kills all germs and pathogens that may be present in the milk . UHT is a food processing technology that sterilizes profuct by heating it above 135 °C (275 °F) – the temperature required to kill– for 2 to 5 seconds. There are many methods of heat treatment of milk such as slow and fast pasteurization, ultra high temperature pasteurization and high temperature sterilization. The UHT method is the best method because it kills all pathogenic microorganisms with high effectiveness without affecting the milk components significantly and does not show brown color or cooked taste.In the heating stage, the treated liquid is first pre-heated to a noncritical temperature (70–80 °C [158– 176 °F] for milk), and then quickly heated to the temperature required by the process. There are two types of heating technologies: direct, where the product is put in a direct contact with the hot steam, and indirect, where the product and the heating medium remain separated by the equipment’s contact surfaces. The main goals of the design, both from product quality and from efficiency standpoints, are to maintain the high product temperature for the shortest period possible, and to ensure that the temperature is evenly distributed throughout.
As kind of risk transmitted through milk, the presence of toxic substances such as aflatoxins .Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is toxic substance produced by some types of fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. When cows consume feedstuffs, aflatoxin B1 is metabolized in the liver to aflatoxin B1 and circulates in the blood and then reaches the milk. Leading to contamination of raw milk and dairy products such as pasteurized milk, ultra-heat milk (UHT). Therefore, it is necessary to strictly monitor AFM1 in milk and assess the risk of AFM1 exposure in milk consumers, especially in infants. What are biological hazards? Milk is secreted from the udder and may be contaminated with many factors such as water (air, equipment, soil , fodder)so it contains many microbes that destroy milk. The biological hazards of milk: Pathogenic bacteria (including toxin-producing bacteria) – Toxigenic moulds/fungi – Parasites – Viruses . HCCP system works here at every stage of milk processing to achieve nutritional quality Through monitoring and controlling the temperature and adding materials that ensure nutritional quality and not spoil the milk and destroy it by exposing it to excessive heat. Chemical Hazards: Chemical hazards include heavy metals, radioactive elements and toxinsinclude poisoning with chemicals and toxins that may be present in milk as a result of improper animal feeding – animal disease – physiological – hormonal imbalance – poisoning by materials that come into contact with milk during its manufacture. Some toxic chemicals may reach, so there must be a careful management system To detect any toxic substance that may harm the health of consumers . Physical Hazards: physical hazards related to milk are, for example, a hard foreign body such as glass or plastic, or any object that harms the human digestive system And other examples as Glass pieces Hair , Insect parts/fragments , Stones , Bone , fragments , Jewellery.
Therefore, here, production managers must develop the necessary plans to prevent any contamination from reaching the milk and to produce safe and high-quality products , we can say that it is the best system for risk analysis at all stages of product manufacturing in order to achieve food security and quality. Therefore based upon the above conclusion the following recommendations are forwarded: Training courses should be held for workers on the HACCP system, enhancing work efficiency, and teaching them how to develop appropriate plans for each specific product to achieve food safety and quality. The risk management system must be promoted by governments in all countries of the world to achieve food security and avoid the spread of diseases transmitted through food products.