Misuse And Overuse of Antibiotic Resistance Puts Us All At Risk
Antibiotic resistance is defined as bacteria changing in ways that reduce or eliminate the effectiveness of antibiotics and the causes are both microbial and human.
The largest challenge to current world health, food security, and development is overuse of antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial resistance occurs when bacteria and fungi learn to resist the medications meant to kill them.
That means the germs are not killed and continue to grow. Resistant infections can be difficult, and sometimes impossible, to treat. Antibiotic resistance is defined as bacteria changing in ways that reduce or eliminate the effectiveness of antibiotics and the causes are both microbial and human.
Antimicrobial resistance is a problem that is linked to high morbidity and death in bacterial infections. Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria with multidrug resistance are challenging to treat with standard medicines and may even be untreatable.
Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change in response to the use of these medicines. We usually hear that even while taking medicine, throat infection, stomach, UTI or any type of infection is not cured easily. The UN General Assembly in 2016 said that, if we do not control antibiotic resistance, our planet will be ruled by bacteria in 2050.
Overuse and Misuse of Antibiotic Resistance :
The medications used against bacterial microbes become ineffective against the microorganisms. And such microbes keep on increasing. People in rural areas typically receive their medical care from primary care doctors. There, non-degree training is still the rule for doctors.
Self-medication, over prescription by doctors, distribution of medicines by pharmacies, and antibiotic resistance. Due to the ineffectiveness of such medicines, about 6 million people die every year because of infections.
The main reason is excessive use of antibiotics, as soon as one goes to the doctor, antibiotics are prescribed and in most of the cases, without observing whether it is bacterial or viral infection.
Because if your throat or chest is infected due to a viral attack, the medicine to kill bacteria would have no effect on the virus. If you do not complete the course of antibiotics meaning if one has to miss morning or evening dose. This makes microorganisms stronger.
Third major reason is excessive use of antibiotics in animal or fish farming due to which microorganisms learn to fight against such medicines. They change their structure or shape that decreases the effect of medicines.
Unhygienic conditions in many hospitals and clinics lead to spread infection, and antibiotic resistance is increased as well. Antibiotic resistance results in increased mortality, higher medical expenses and longer hospital stays.
As antibiotics lose their effectiveness, a growing number of infections including pneumonia, TB, blood poisoning, syphilis, and foodborne diseases are becoming difficult to cure and occasionally becoming lethal. Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial illnesses.
However, they do not manage viral infections. For strep throat, an antibiotic is the correct treatment which is caused by bacteria. For most sore throats, but it’s not the right treatment which is caused by viruses.
Prevention and control:
Antibiotics are not a cure for every disease. For example if there is a throat problem but no temperature. Taking self-care by gurgles, avoiding spicy or hot food may cure it. If the doctor says that there is no need for antibiotics, please don’t demand antibiotics from the doctor.
Nature has given a defense system in our body, let it work as well. Use antibiotics properly and don’t miss any dose of antibiotics. Keep hand washing, social distance from patients, take care of hygiene while cooking food. Take vaccines and use antibiotics for only serious bacterial infection.
One method to lower antibiotic resistance is to improve primary care physicians’ awareness and practice of rational antibiotic usage. When using antibiotics, always follow the advice of your healthcare provider. Antibiotic remains should never be shared or used.
This article is jointly authored by Sadia Bibi, Prof. Dr. Anas Sarwar Qureshi, Dr. Shah Nawaz, Muhammad Asghar.