Warming has occurred at a country scale across most of South Asia over the 20thcentury and into the 21st, and there have been more temperature extremes.
Sindh is smashed between the two monsoons — the southwest monsoon from the Indian Ocean and the northeast or retreating monsoon, which is deflected towards it by the Himalayan mountains—and thus escapes their influence. Climate change poses a threat to coastal communities in Sindh province.
It has the potential to aggravate floods, sea level rise, severe storms, coastal erosion, droughts, and extreme weather events such as coastal storms, hurricanes, and tornadoes across coastal communities in Sindh province.
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Between 2010 and 2022, the Asia region as a whole experienced the most weather- and climate-related disasters in the world, resulting in almost 30% of total global economic losses. In terms of casualties, the risk of flooding deaths is concentrated in Asia.
In 2015, a climate effect short and intense heat wave killed more than 2000 people in Karachi and rulers areas of Sindh that is an alarming sign of climate change. Climate change is likely to bring about more frequent occurrences of heat waves, which will primarily affect the poor and vulnerable more severely.
Warming has occurred at a country scale across most of South Asia over the 20thcentury and into the 21st, and there have been more temperature extremes. It is also likely that the number of cold days and nights has decreased and the number of warm days and nights has increased across most of Asia.
Heat wave frequency has also increased since the middle of the 20th century in large parts of Asia, and the frequency of hot days in South Asia is likely to increase day by day in the future. Rainfall trends, both increasing and decreasing and including extremes, have been observed in different parts of Sindh.
An increase in extreme rainfall events related to monsoons is very likely in the region, and more frequent and heavy rainfall days are projected over whole Sindh especially on right bank of Sindh land sliding occur in this area.
Damage to infrastructure, livelihoods and settlements from urban floods linked to extreme rainfall events, rising sea level, sea surges and cyclones.
In urban and ruler areas where child mortality is high, extreme temperatures and heavy rain fall have led to more deaths. Mental disorders and post-traumatic stress syndrome have also been observed in disaster prone areas.
Research and climate change indicates that precipitation in Karachi has been decreasing over the last four decades, while temperatures have been rising, a trend that is likely to continue as climate change impacts intensify. Increased morbidity and mortality due to heavy rain and flooding after flooding will become a major public health.
This considerable threat could undermine the growth of Sindh tackling disease, malnutrition and early deaths to newborn babies, Pregnant women, many pathogen and parasites encephalitis outbreak in Sindh have been associated with frequency of rainfall, after floods at higher risk face pathogens and parasites can multiply faster cause Dengue. The incidence of many diseases increases in human also animals and birds die due to dirty water drinking
Assessing vulnerability to climate change is important for identifying overall risks, vulnerable areas, sectors and social groups.
It is critical for cities to better understand these risks and how they vary across time scales and spatially across geographical locations, and how they can affect city-level development sectors such as infrastructure, municipal finance and other public and private functions and assets.
This article is jointly authored by Saadia Munir and Amir Hussain from Botanical Science Division, Pakistan Museum of Natural History, Islamabad.