Cotton Types And Key Factors To Increase Production Of Cotton
Defoliation should be done as soon as feasible to achieve the best possible balance between cotton output and quality.
Cotton is often a cross-pollinated crop. The percentage of cross pollination varies from 5-25% depending on the insect. The botanical name of cotton is Gossypium. It belongs to the Malvaceae family. It is grown in many countries around the world, like China, India, and the United States.
One of the most popular natural fibres, it is used to create a wide range of textiles, including apparel, bedding, and towels. Cottonseed meal (CSM), cottonseed hulls, gin waste, and cotton stalk residue are typical cotton byproducts. At home, it is used in bedsheets and curtains. Its seeds are used to feed cattle and are graded to make oil (this oil is used in food and cosmetics), rubber, and plastics.
Types of Cotton
There are 40 types of cotton, of which only four varieties are bred.
- Gossypium hirsutum
- Gossypium herbaceum
- Gossypium barbadense
- Gossypium arboretum
Gossypium hirsutum: 90% of world cotton production comes from these. It has elastic and strong, high-quality cotton. The flower size is medium, without spots on the petals. It has large and cordate bracts. The fibre length is 28–32 mm .
Gossypium herbaceum: It grows in Pakistan, India, and Africa. It has small flowers with a crimson-red spot on the petals. The shape of bracts is triangular. The fibre length is up to 25 mm and is thick.
Gossypium barbadense: Egypt, Sudan, the USA, Brazil, and Peru grow this type of cotton. The flower’s size is large, with a crimson-red spot on the petals. It has triangle bracts. The fibre is long (35–50 mm) and thin.
Gossypium arboretum: It is grown in Pakistan, Sri Lanka,Sri-Lanka and India. It is not a widely cultivated species due to its short and poor-quality fibre.
Factors to Increase the Production of Cotton
We adopt the following factors to enhance the production of cotton, the cross-pollinated crop:
Cotton type selection:
Cotton type selection depends on many factors, e.g., climate and soil conditions in the area (where cotton will be grown), temperature, the use of cotton (i.e., for industrial purposes), and the preferences of the buyer.
Seed treatment is an essential step in the production process that can help increase cotton production.
Fungicides: Fungal diseases are the major issue for cotton crops. By using fungicide seed treatments, we can protect the plant from infection.
Insecticides: Cotton, the cross-pollinated crop, is attacked by insect pests, and it is impossible to grow a good crop without pest control. Insects like jassids, whiteflies, thrips, etc. It can damage the cotton seedlings and reduce the yield. Insecticide seed treatment can help us protect this damage and control the insect.
Nematicides: Nematodes are microscopic worms. It can damage the cotton root. Nematicide seed treatment can help protect the young plant from nematode damage and can improve yield.
A soil test helps us establish its pH level and the amount of nutrients needed to fertilise the field.
- It’s important to maintain the soil pH within the optimal range for cotton production. The optimum pH level of soil for cotton ranges from 6.0 to 7.0. If the pH is too low, lime can be added to the soil to raise the pH. If the pH is too high, sulphur or acidifying agents can be added to lower the pH.
- The ideal soil temperature for cotton seed germination is between 60°F and 65°F (15.6°C and 18.3°C). If this temperature is below 60°F, it delays seed germination. The seedlings may be susceptible to disease. If this temperature is above 95°F, the plant may experience heat stress, which can decrease growth and lower yield.
- Moisture is an important factor in cotton production. Cotton plants need optimum moisture during their early growth stages. The soil moisture level ranges from 50 to 75%.
There is a suitable moisture level, so water crops appropriately for the cotton-growing area. To prevent the plant from maturing too slowly, avoid excessive irrigation. When the cotton is in the proper stage of development, perform irrigation.
Farmers can use integrated pest management (IPM) practises to minimise the use of pesticides. IPM involves using a combination of cultural, biological, and chemical control methods to manage pests. This can include practises such as crop rotation, planting resistant varieties, and using natural predators to control pest populations.
Defoliation should be done as soon as feasible to achieve the best possible balance between cotton output and quality. Defoliate the cotton crop when the seed coats are black, and harvest it after the majority of the bolls have opened.