The Gwadar port, which is located in Balochistan, is the third-largest port in Pakistan. Balochistan has many plain and hilly areas that are suitable for agriculture.
Climate change is the most dangerous global issue, which causes the soil and results in lower crop yields. Which is the problem not only for farmers but also for consumers who depend on agriculture.
Balochistan is situated in the southwest of Pakistan and covers an area of 347,190 square kilometers. Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan in land area and is very rich in many kinds of natural resources and minerals.
Balochistan has the largest coastline area of around 750 kilometres, which begins at the Goth Haji Alano on the mouth of the Hub River, which also touches the Sindh province border, and extends to Jewani on the west at the Gwadar Coastline along with the Iran border.
The Gwadar port, which is located in Balochistan, is the third-largest port in Pakistan. Balochistan has many plain and hilly areas that are suitable for agriculture. The climate in Balochistan is moderate. The summers are hot and dry; the arid zones become extremely hot in the summer; and the winters are mild in plain areas, never falling below the freezing point.
Agriculture is the key source of income in Balochistan and contributes almost 70 percent of GDP. Due to the blessing of a natural climate and agro-ecological zone, Balochistan is called the basket of fruits of the country, producing 90% of all grapes, cherries, and almonds, 60 percent of peaches, pomegranates, and apricots, and 70 percent of all dates produced in Pakistan.
The climate of Balochistan is very suitable for many crops, such as wheat, rice, corn, maize, barley, and many other crops. In Balochistan, 80 percent of the population is related to agriculture directly or indirectly; the majority of people live in villages and totally depend on agriculture. Climate change occurs due to human activities that result in increased temperatures, soil fertility degradation, unusual rainfall, and many other difficulties.
There are many beautiful beaches in Balochistan, like Gadani beach, Gawadar beach, Omara beach, Somiani beach, etc., where people come and enjoy the beautification of nature, but there is a negative impact because people pollute the places and intentionally or unintentionally disturb the marine life.
Causes of Climate Change in Balochistan Agriculture:
A mature leafy tree can produce oxygen for 10 people. Deforestation occurs for different purposes, such as charcoal production, furniture, sports products, etc. It is necessary, but it increases global warming due to deforestation, which causes a lack of oxygen and a polluted environment. And the rare forest of juniper in Ziarat is threatened with extinction due to deforestation.
2: Industrial waste:
Industries are the backbone of any country’s economy. After the revaluation of industries in Balochistan, employment problems have reduced, but the environment has been polluted due to industrial waste. Industries release harmful waste chemicals into the air and water that cause pollution.
The vehicles that we use for transportation help us, but they release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, which are dangerous for the depletion of the ozone layer and increase temperature, which leads to global warming.
The application of fertilisers is very essential for almost every crop, but it also pollutes the environment because many pious chemicals are added to fertiliser that pollute the environment.
5: Lack of awareness:
It is the main cause of climate change in Balochistan because the people don’t know how to deal with climate change and skip over this situation.
Some of the main effects of climate change on Balochistan’s agriculture are:
1: Increasing in Temperature:
Usually, climate change increases the temperature and brings heat waves, which can cause damage to crops, reduce their yield level, and reduce their nutritional value.
2: Unusual Rainfall:
The warm temperature increases the evaporation rate of water into the air. When more moisture is in the air, it brings more rainfall.
3: Soil quality:
Climate change affects soil fertility, increases soil erosion, which reduces crop yield, and makes it difficult to defend against insect pests.
4: Pests and diseases:
Climate change can allow insect pests into the field due to the warm temperature that is suitable for the field, decrease soil fertility, and increase diseases in the crop plants.
Contribution of Agriculture to Climate Change:
Agriculture is the key source of income for many countries, but it also contributes to cause climate change through different practices such as fertiliser application that releases different greenhouse gases, livestock farming, deforestation, etc.
1: Livestock farming:
The rationing of animals is a good business practice, but the production of animals like cows and goats contributes to climate change. Green leafy plants, which provide us oxygen and play a key role in a clean environment, can be overgrazed, which can change the climate.
2: Using fertilisers:
Using fertilisers in agricultural crops is directly involved in climate change because it releases pious chemicals that can pollute the environment.
- We should maintain the vehicle’s engine in the right way.
- We have to reduce the use of fertilisers and adapt environmentally friendly techniques.
- We have to reduce deforestation.
- We have to reduce the number of animals that are overgrazing.
It is our responsibility to avoid those practices that contribute to climate change. Increase the plantations, reduce the deforestation, reduce the burning of fossil fuels, which are releasing greenhouse gases, and reduce the application of pious fertilisers and adopt environmentally friendly techniques to clean the environment. And government has to take serious action to make people aware.