Nitrogen is a major constituent about 78% of the composite of all atmospheric gases. This inert nitrogen is biologically unavailable to most of the organisms. Therefore, application of reactive nitrogen is usual practice in agricultural systems for food and energy production. Despite the enormous benefits, this anthprogenic activity leads to various consequences. Most of the agricultural emissions comprise of particulate matters, odor, eutrophication, acidification and exposure to toxins. Nutrient pollution of water, soil and air is becoming a widespread issue in the world and has variety of consequences. Major sources include the septic tanks, use of nitrogenous fertilizers for crop production and turf grass management. Man-made sources are releasing about 5×105 tons of NOx (Nitrogen oxides) annually. Among different nitrogen forms, nitrate and nitrous oxide (N2O) are of environmental concern. Nitrate is a common nitrogenous compound formed due to natural processes of nitrogen cycle and anthropogenic activities. The accumulation of too much nitrogen and phosphorus in water causes algae to grow, which depletes the oxygen present in the water due to algal bloom formation. This oxygen depletion leads to illness and death of large number of fish. Moreover, human also come under the effect of this pollution, if they come in contact with polluted water, consume tainted fish, or drink contaminated water. Infants are vulnerable to nitrate that causes blue baby syndrome (Methaemoglobonemia). Bacteria present in infants intestine convert nitrate into nitrite, which has potential to combine with two molecules of hemoglobin causing oxygen deprivation. Another emerging perspective in environmental sciences is the agricultural air pollution. The nitrification and denitrification processes are of major importance in agricultural ecosystems. Emission of nitric oxide (NO) and particularly of nitrous oxide (N2O) through these processes becomes a special concern as N2O average lifetime in atmosphere is 114-120 years and it is 3800 times stronger than CO2 to cause global warming. These emissions are variable in time and space. For example in US ammonia accounts for 90% emissions through agricultural means, nitrous oxide 72% and methane 29%. Major global greenhouse gases are CFCs, carbon dioxide, methane nitrous oxide. The global warming potential is in the order of CFC> N2O >CH4 >CO2. According to 5th assessment report of intergovernmental Panel on Climate, although carbon emission are more than nitrogen emissions and supposed to cause 50% of greenhouse effect but Nitrogen pollution is not restricted to global warming, as it can cause multiple effects through reactive nitrogen cascade. The circulation of anthropogenic reactive nitrogen negatively effects the terrestrial ecosystems, freshwater, marine, the atmosphere and human health. So there is need regulate or quantify the use of nitrogenous fertilizers.

Web TeamArticles Nitrogen is a major constituent about 78% of the composite of all atmospheric gases. This inert nitrogen is biologically unavailable to most of the organisms. Therefore, application of reactive nitrogen is usual practice in agricultural systems for food and energy production. Despite the enormous benefits, this anthprogenic activity leads...Pakistan's Only Newspaper on Science and Technology
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