Agriculture reforms to impasse malnutrition problem
May 10th, 2016 | Technology Times | No Comments
Malnutrition is a pathological condition resulting from eating a diet in which nutrients are either not enough or are too much
such that the physical function of an individual is impaired to the point where he or she can no longer maintain natural
bodily capacities such as growth, pregnancy, learning abilities, physical work and resisting or recovering from disease. The
term covers a range of problems from being dangerously thin (underweight) or too short (stunting) for ones age to being
deficient in vitamins and minerals or being too fat. Malnutrition is due to of lack of enough food or the right sort of food.
Disease is often a factor, either as a result or contributing cause. Even if people get enough to eat, they will become
malnourished if their diet does not provide the proper amounts of micronutrients – vitamins and minerals – to meet daily
nutritional requirements. Malnutrition is the largest single contributor to disease, according to the UNs Standing Committee
on Nutrition (SCN).
Children and women are usually affected by Malnutrition. According to SCNs World Nutrition Situation 5th report, 147
million preschoolers are affected by it and it cause reduced physical and mental retardation. Iodine deficiency is greatest
cause of mental retardation and brain damage. In 2001, it was noted that malnutrition caused 54% deaths in children living
in developing countries. The World Health Organization through the Millennium Development Goal 4 has recognized that
improved nutrition is crucial in reducing the under-5 years mortality, especially in the developing countries.
Laying its special emphasis in our part of the world, the percentage of malnourished children is highest in Asia with 70% of
undernourished children living in this part of the world. Micronutrient deficiency among children is also high and has
worsened considerably since 2001. More than half of the children in Pakistan suffer from vitamin A deficiency. In South Asia,
one out of two preschoolers is underweight and has stunted growth. In Pakistan,33.03% (CI= 27.96-38.54)of children under
the age of 5 are underweight, 53.38% of the children are stunted and wasting has been reported in 11.52% of the children,
which clearly shows that the nutritional status in this country is poor. Goiter caused by iodine deficiency is also common with
the highest cases reported in Pakistan, India and parts of Indonesia. According to National Nutrition Survey, In Pakistan there
has been improvement in rates of iodine deficiency from 42 per cent to 12 per cent among children between the ages of 6
To solve the problems causing malnutrition among Pakistani children, the following measures are suggested: Various
methods like the use of fertilizers would give a better crop. Policies should be made by the government to provide food
security to the masses. Educational programs should be planned that elucidate the importance of various components in a
childand#39;s diet and also inform people about cheaper food alternatives that can provide them with vital nutrients. Controlling
the growth of population and providing family planning guidance will lead to more food availability. By increasing the
cultivated areas agriculture production will increase due to which more and cheaper food will be available and also for
increasing cultivated areas more labor will be required so many poor families will get income from that which in turn
SUMMARY OF PAKISTAN
In Pakistan, the nutritional status of children under five years of age is extremely poor. At a national level almost 40% of
these children are underweight. Over half the children are affected by Vitamin A deficiency and stunting, and about 9% by
wasting. A positive relationship exists between the age of the child and the prevalence rates of stunting and underweight.
There are significant provincial variations in malnutrition rates in Pakistan, whereas no differences in malnutrition rates are
apparent between sexes. The prevalence of stunting appears to be associated with the overall level of development of the
provinces, being lowest in Punjab and highest in Balochistan, the least developed province. According to NNS 2011, stunting
in Punjab is 39% while in Balochistan is 52%.
The anthropometric deficits are systematically higher in rural areas probably due to the lower socio-economic status and to
very poor access to basic health services. Prevalence of stunting is 9 percentage points higher in rural areas compared to
According to the nation-wide food consumption surveys conducted in Pakistan, the average daily per caput energy intake
covered the daily requirements in the periods 1984-85 and 1987-88. Unfortunately, since no recent nation-wide food
consumption surveys are available, no information on the adequacy of present food consumption can be given.
In the Pakistani diet cereals remain the main staple food providing 62% of total energy. Compared to other Asian countries,
the level of milk consumption is significant in Pakistan, whereas the consumption of fruits and vegetables, fish and meat
remains very low. The consumption of fruit and fresh vegetables, which are highly dependent on local seasonal availability,
is also limited by the lack of organized marketing facilities throughout the country. Fluctuations in the availability of these
important foods are likely to be one of the factors responsible for the micronutrient deficiency disorders observed in
Food consumption is just one of the multiple factors which interact and have an impact on the nutritional status of the
overall population. Other important influences include morbidity, poor coverage of health infrastructures and socio-
Since Pakistanand#39;s independence (1947), the provision of health infrastructures has improved over time but remains
inadequate particularly in rural areas. The under-five mortality rate, an important index of health and nutritional status of a
community, is high by international standards: 137 for 1,000 births. A large number of infectious diseases such as respiratory
and intestinal infections remain responsible for up to 50% of deaths of children under five, with malnutrition being an
aggravating factor especially in the most populated areas.
Malnutrition prevalence – weight for age (% of children) in Pakistan
Malnutrition prevalence; weight for age (% of children) in Pakistan was last measured at 30.90 in 2011, according to the
World Bank. Prevalence of child malnutrition is the percentage of children under age 5 whose weight for age is more than
two standard deviations below the median for the international reference population ages 0-59 months. By the National
Nutrition Survey Provincial wise underweight percentage, Punjab has low ratio of underweight children as compare to the
less developed provinces like Balochistan. Provincial wise under-weight percentage is given below in table.
PROVINCIAL TRENDS IN ANTHROPOMETRIC INDICATORS (UNDER-WEIGHT %AGE)
Causes of Malnutrition
Major causes of malnutrition include poverty and food prices, dietary practices and less agricultural productivity, with many
individual cases being a mixture of several factors. Clinical malnutrition, such as in cachexia, is a major burden also in
developed countries. Various scales of analysis also have to be considered in order to determine the sociopolitical causes of
malnutrition. For example, the population of a community may be at risk if the area lacks health-related services, but on a
smaller scale certain households or individuals may be at even higher risk due to differences in income levels, access to land,
or levels of education.
Poverty and food prices
The effort to bring modern agricultural techniques to meet the challenges of world food security in respect of increasing
To improve food security and nutrition issue agriculture biotechnology can play an important role. By genetic
engineering we can not only produce disease and drought resistant crops but also produce nutritious beneficial crops like
protein rich wheat and millet and “golden rice” which contain Vitamin A.
Breastfeeding in the first two years and exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months could save 1.3 million childrens
School Food Program
By providing nutritious food to children at school level is very good incentive. International organizations, NGOs and
Government should start such programs at school level to overcome the malnutrition issue. It is also an incentive for children
to go to school and perform better.
Manufacturers are trying to fortify everyday foods with micronutrients that can be sold to consumers such as wheat
flour for Beladi bread in Egypt or fish sauce in Vietnam and the iodization of salt.
For example, flour has been fortified with iron, zinc, folic acid and other B vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin,niacin and
One suggested policy framework to resolve access issues is termed food sovereignty-the right of peoples to define
their own food, agriculture, livestock, and fisheries systems, in contrast to having food largely subjected to international
Province 2001 2011
Punjab 29 30
Sindh 42 41
KP 31 24
Balochistan 28 40
Another possible long term solution would be to increase access to health facilities to rural parts of the world.
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