Breast cancer current status in Pakistan and worldwide innovation (Nano-oncology) and way forward
January 4th, 2018 | Umar Shaikh | 2 Comments
Cancer: Tumor is caused by the group of cells that performs abnormal job that structure lumps or growth. Tumor can start anywhere in trillions of cells in our body they grow and illustrate different act whether they are cancerous, precancerous and non-cancerous
Pakistan get the peak position of breast cancer in Asia as different studies code in Pakistan every year 90000 patients are reported and out of these 40000 are virtually kill by cancer.1 in 9 women of Pakistan are in high threat of breast cancer. In Pakistan we have estimated 200 million population and 340000 patients are detection per annum 2015.
|PAEC, Medical center||550||35||29000|
Out of these for new cancer patients we need 7000 beds, 680 doctors and 6800 nurses.
Cancer: Tumor is caused by the group of cells that performs abnormal job that structure lumps or growth. Tumor can start anywhere in trillions of cells in our body they grow and illustrate different act whether they are cancerous, precancerous and non-cancerous.
Cancerous Tumor:In this sort Cancer be capable of set up any part of body and after form a lump is called cancerous tumor it can raise into close by tissues and can break away and voyage through the lymphatic system to diverse part of body.
Precancerous cells: These are abnormal cells can alter into cancerous cells if they are not treated some can disappear without any treatment but some pass on genetic changes and progressively they turn into more cancerous and put on the concluding shape of cancerous cells.
Noncancerous: these cells don’t move in the body parts and don’t come back after removed have different shape.
Detection diagnosis and treatment of human cancer by using nano-medicine is called nano-oncology. Nano-Particle are developed for tumor imaging in vivo,bio molecular profiling of caner biomarker and targeted drug delivery. Nanoparticles encompass exclusive biological properties specified their tiny mass and large surface area-to-volume ratio, which permits them to connect, absorb, and carry compounds such as small molecule drugs, DNA, RNA, proteins, and probes with high effectiveness. Nanoparticles have unique biological properties given their small size and large surface area-to-volume ratio, which allows them to bind, absorb, and carry compounds such as small molecule drugs, DNA, RNA, proteins, and probes with high efficiency .We use Gold nanoparticles By attaching monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which can identify a precise cancer cell, by the “heating phenomenon” can be used in cancer detection.. Gold nano particles are not toxic for human health it does not require high microscope to view the results, Result can be seen immediately. we use Quantum dots in diagnosis human breast cancer by detecting the expression level of Oestrogen and progesterone receptors, Paraffin embedded human breast tumor stained with the human antibodies against these receptors conjugated with Q.D, we also done tumor imaging in vivo by using magnetic nanoparticles because of key advantages low toxicity, Biocompatibility and high level of accumulation in target tissues, Treatment of breast cancer by nanotechnology tumor selective drug delivery desireable to increase cell kill effect while protecting the healthy tissue from cytotoxic agent. Anthracyclines are most active agent for treatment of breast cancer and widely used at every stage but use of anthracyclines is limited due to cardiac toxic effect like this Trastuzumab is monoclonal antibody that target ERBB2 use for the treatment of aggressive form of cancer its use is limited because of cardiac toxic effect we use liposomal nanoparticles that carry this drug to cancer cells and protect the other healthy cells from cytotoxic agent the use of these drug loading nanoparticle offer improved tumor penetration ,selective tumor targeting and subsequent decrease in toxic effect. We also use Gene therapy technique for breast cancer treatment this therapy involve the transfer of suppressor gene ,enhancement of immunological response transfer of suicide gene we use nanoparticles for the delivery of DNA and RNA are encapsulated into nanoparticles and thus protected from degradation with targeted antibody increase gene delivery to tumor cells, Cancer is leading to death around the world and estimated 84 million people will die of diseases B/w 2005 and 2015 only devolving countries are hit by cancer than the high resources countries United nation ,WHO and other health organizations unite and devise strategies to fight against cancer . It is detained below the guidance of the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) sanctioned by in excess of 400 member organizations transversely 120 countries.
Why Pakistan is step back in cancer,
.Inadequate training in oncology, there are 21 dedicated hospitals which treat only cancer another 50 General hospitals have facilities to treat cancer with chemotherapy and radiation.
Lack of awareness majority of patients tends to present at a late stage in their disease because patients to shun going to observe a doctor for only if probable and they are often unable to afford expensive investigations.
Way forward ,,need education and training significant challenges exist for the outlook of oncology within Pakistan and special training and educations programs for doctors and nurses on innovative techniques in this field, Development of infrastructure more hospitals and advance techniques and low cost of cancer treatment ,cancer registries based data on cancer incidence and mortality ,research in oncology, cancer screening and prevention, health education first step is needed to raise the awareness in public about cancer ,public awareness seminar. The Future there are huge statistics of patients and insufficient data from cancer registries, making planning used for the future incredibly tricky. Patients present at an advanced phase, here are no screening programmers and the national cancer plan, well intentioned as it undoubtedly was, has not been implemented. There are wide variations in the standards of care, no formal palliative care facilities, a dearth of trained manpower and a paucity of training opportunities, both locally and overseas. A culture of research is lacking, although it is developing slowly—opportunities are certainly aplenty. The future ought to involve enhanced partnership between the private sector and philanthropic organizations or funding agencies, since the government is increasingly seen as being incapable or unwilling to provide health care. National priorities in this struggle ought, perhaps, to be focused on cancer prevention, early detection and therapy, development of a national cancer registry and collaboration between cancer centers in training as well as in research.
Author of this article is Umar Shahbaz Jiangnan university Wuxi China.
Published in: Volume 09 Issue 01
Short Link: https://www.technologytimes.pk/?p=20085