Clinical Bioinformatics: Informatics on clinical approach
FROM THE last few decades computer sciences and ICT have revolutionized the field of molecular biology and bioinformatics. The exploration of gene sequence and protein structure information has led to a volatile growth in clinical practices of bioinformatics.
The discipline is experiencing an increasing attention in the study of biomedical problems along with the complete human genome sequences, its analysis and understandings.
Bioinformatics has a huge impact on biological research in microarray technology, oncology, proteomics, pharmacogenomics, and systems biology.
It is a field which uses biological information and mathematical, statistical and computing methods to research living things. It provides accessible interfaces, which allow researchers to search databases and genomic studies.
With the advent of advanced ICT applications in healthcare and clinical practice, bioinformatics has given birth to clinical bioinformatics.
Clinical bioinformatics is a new emerging science which mutually combines clinical informatics, bioinformatics, medical informatics, information technology, mathematics, and omics science together.
It plays a significant role in a number of clinical applications, including omics technology, metabolic and signaling pathways, biomarker discovery and development, computational biology, genomics, proteomics, metaboliomics, pharmacomics, transcriptomics, high-throughput image analysis, human molecular genetics, human tissues bank, mathematical medicine and biology, protein expression, profiling and systems biology.
It is a field which includes the analysis of human microarray and other omics data, combination of bioinformatics and medical informatics, development of bioinformatics methodologies for clinical research, and human databases. It intends to establish a scientific channel to interpret bioinformatics to clinical approach in order to have better understand of molecular and cellular mechanisms and therapies for human diseases. It provides advanced biological and medical information for individualized healthcare.
As technology is changing so fast day by day clinical bioinformatics has also introduced new trends in the field of bioinformatics. It has enabled researchers to search online databases for a given gene’s sequences, proteins, mutations, coverage in the scientific literature and annotation, and model gene regulatory networks and metabolic pathways in the medical practice.
Clinical bioinformatics research can benefit from the technological expertise that medical clinicians have experienced widely in the clinical grounds, including database organization and knowledge representation, data mining, and modeling and simulation.
Microarray technology has brought in new means for global analyses of thousands of genes expression in a single examine.
Microarray experiments have consequently produced vast amounts of data. Microarray analysis, including data mining, involves data processing to identify gene expression patterns using various statistical methods.
Clinical bioinformatics in proteomics is mounting to handle large heterogeneous data sets and reinforce the knowledge discovery process. Different tools have been used to explore the protein in clinical bioinformatics.
The role of clinical bioinformatics in 2-DE gel and 3-D structure is a vigorously practised topic in proteomics. During the last two decades, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gel has established itself as the de facto approach to separating proteins from cell and tissue samples.
In pharmacology, clinical bioinformatics has executed its applications in drug target identification, development of biomarkers, clinical trials, and pharmacogenomic and toxicogenomic tools.
This field is also playing a pivotal role in cancer research. In cancer research, high-throughput genome technology has generated immense quantities of data, including microarray gene expression and genome sequences.
Apart from it the investigation of gene expression using computational and genomic approaches and identification of sequence has facilitated cancer researchers and medical practitioners in a more effective manner. It has not only been used to assist in early cancer detection but also in risk identification, risk reduction, and cancer prevention.
Clinical bioinformatics is cultivating informatics methods with new trends that will crucially prove the development of genomic medicine. Close collaboration between bioinformatics and medical informatics researchers can bring new insights in genomic medicine and contribute towards the more effective and efficient use of genomic data in advanced clinical care.
Advancements in molecular-based information have led to a profound understanding of the complexity of human life. Clinical bioinformatics is using high approaches of biological information system that will surely contribute to advanced changes in practice standards of healthcare systems.
The future of clinical bioinformatics will be affected patently by significant advances in clinical practice and biomedical research, which will facilitate potential benefits to humanity by means of improved healthcare, disease prevention and health maintenance as we move toward the modern era of personalized medicine.
The writer is B.E. (Biomedical Engineering) at Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan.