Eleven Endangered Species in Pakistan
February 22nd, 2018 | Rao M Sajjad Sharif | No Comments
Over the last century, the world climate has changed. Since 1900, the average earth temperature of the globe has increased by 0.6 ± 0.2oC. Consequently, the climate change is happening due to sea level rise, change in precipitations, sea level rise, increase in the number of heat waves and retreat of glaciers. The current climate change is increased due to the emission of Greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2, CH4 and N2O etc. Anthropogenic activities are the main drivers of the Greenhouse gases. The normal patterns of the humidity and temperature are changed generally delimit the boundaries of the animal species. The 1oC change in temperature, the ecological zones move 160 km either in altitude or latitude. The seasonal and geographical distribution is badly effected due to high temperature. Climate change affects the ecosystems in many ways that includes boreal and tropical forests polar regions, marine ecosystems, island, wetlands and savannahs. Pakistan is one of the most beautiful places for the tourism for its natural beauty. It has many diverse cultures, historical places, landscape of the country and peoples are the main reasons to attract the many visitors every year. But now a days climate change is affecting its biodiversity.
Markhor is one of the most beautiful wild animals living in the mountainous regions of the Pakistan. The wild goat prefers living on steep cliffs and dangerous zone of the mountains to save themselves from the various attacks of the other wild predators such as wolf and snow leopard. These wild animals have play an important role in food web of ecosystems of the mountains.
The weasel’s species is native to Pakistan and mature animals continue to extinct in numbers. The range of Mountain Weasel includes east and central Asia, China, Nepal and Pakistan etc. According to the ICUN’s the most mountain Weasles are more concerned due to its extinction. A continuing declines in population of the Weasles species due to the ongoing deforestation.
Asian Black Bear
The black bear found in the Balochistan mountains of southern Iran and pakistan. In Pakistan, hilly ranges of Takht-e-Suliman and Toba Kakar are the habitat of black bear. That and expansion of human settlement into wildlife territory has affected their growth putting a threat on their species. It’s a shame that people are destroying such things for personal pleasure.
Smooth Coated Otter
The smooth coated otter lived in Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and India. Mostly, the smooth coated otter is endangered due to loss in wetland habitat. The Otter’s habitat is lost due to the conversion of wetlands for settlement and agriculture, contamination of waterways by pesticides and large scale hydroelectric projects. Infrastructure developments and reduction in prey biomass (fishes) have led to disappearance of smooth coated otter from many rivers and streams.
Mostly leopard occurs in sub saharan Africa and Asia. According to IUCN red list the leopards are at extinct level due to habitat fragmentation and habitat loss. The other main reasons for the extinction of leopards are hunting and body parts are used for the decoration and medicinal practices.
Indus River Dolphin
The Indus river dolphin is the second most endangered freshwater river dolphin. The populations of river dolphin declined due to the many factors such as poaching, habitat fragmentation and water pollution due to dams and barrages. Water pollution is the major threat for the survival of Indus river dolphin such as untreated sewage from the societies, industrial pollution and pesticides caused a massive quantity of fish deaths in highly urban area. The other major threat to the river dolphin populations such as hunted for different purposes just like traditional medicines, oil and meat.
Marco Polo Sheep
Marco polo found in Pakistan, China and Afghanistan. The Marco polo preferably likes to live on mountains, gentle slopes and steep valleys. According to the IUCN red list 2008 the Marco polo sheep is considered as endangered species due to the habitat loss, over hunting or illegal shooting and limited resources.
The snow leopards are found in the mountainous areas of Pakistan. The populations of snow leopard declined due to many factors such as Climate change, killed by local farmers, diseases, illegal trade, resource extraction and prey declines. Climate change is a major threat to the habitat for snow leopard. (Wingard et al. 2014) reported that the new threats for the snow leopard have been identified such as mining, barriers such as fenced railway lines or roads and large scale infrastructure.
The habitats of this species are under threats due to the oil exploration, water development projects, growing population and agricultural development. The eastern population is at risk from loss of wetland habitat whereas the western population is threatened hunting.
Green Sea Turtle
Mainly, green sea turtle are found in subtropical and tropical waters. Mostly, Sea turtles are dependent on beaches for their nesting. Vehicle traffic and other human activities on beaches are destroying the nesting places of green turtle. The populations of green sea turtles are under threatened due to hunting of adults, overharvesting of their eggs, uncontrolled coastal development, human activities and water pollution.
The fishing cat is mainly feeds on snakes, frog, fish, rodents, wild pigs and young deer etc. Fishing cat is mainly found in dense vegetation near stream and rive and tropical dry forest. The population of fishing cat threatened due to over farming, use of chemical fertilizer, drainage issue and over fishing by human.
This article is collectively authored by Rao M Sajjad Sharif*1 Ashfaq Ahmad2 and Syed Muhammad Zia-ul-Hassan3. 1Institute of soil and Environmental Science, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. 2Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. 3Institute of horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad.
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