Enhancement of Growth, Production and Qualities of Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) under Abiotic Stress by Proline

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“Cauliflower” is much popular vegetable throughout the world. In Urdu it is called “Phool Ghobi”. The mean of word “Cauli” is soft and the mean of word “flower” is blossom. In other nations its name is Ghobi, Kohlrabi and Cabbage. It is the member of family Brassicaceae. In Pakistan this is known as Phool Ghobi. But in Pakistan is called cauliflower. It is most likely started from Cyprus. Cauliflower is produced and cultivated for distant markets. It has a curd or white head. It is utilized as a part of soups, curries and pickles. It has many quantities of carbohydrates, minerals, vitamin A and vitamin C. Pakistan is included in main ten cauliflower producing countries in the world, about 11420 hectares of reaped region, about 183340 hectogram/hectare of yield and about 209010 tons of production in 2013 (Anjum et al., 2016). Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) is a winter season vegetable. It is delicate to warm summer climate and dry season (Zerkoune, 2000). The heads start to produce during winter, color of curd become white, appealing and minimal in nature, however curd faces issues of abiotic and biotic stress, for example continuous of dry weather, cold and insect plague.

Cauliflower is a heavy consumer of nitrogen fertilizer which has more impact on the vegetation and yield of the cauliflower than some other plants. Harvest of brassica, such as broccoli and cauliflower reacted considerably to most important supplements like N, P and K in regard of growth of harvest and yield, while K is the important components for yield and the dry weight of broccoli (Abdel-Ghany et al., 2015; Islam et al., 2010). Cauliflower is very receptive to nitrogen fertilizer and extreme applications of nitrogen hardly ever adversely influence the cauliflower development (Huang, 2010). Organic and inorganic fertilizers are utilized for the development of cauliflower. For high development previous utilized chemical fertilizer for higher creation of cauliflower as contrast with inorganic fertilizer. Inorganic fertilizers incorporating waste material utilized as a part of cultivating is farthest point source profoundly costs and less accessible in market as contrast with organic fertilizer (Hira et al., 2008). Substantial amounts of inorganic fertilizers are used for higher yield (Stewart et al., 2005) and most extreme estimation of development (Srimathi, 2015). In any case, the utilization of inorganic fertilizers along may bring some issues for human wellbeing and environment (Mohanty et al., 2015). Weeds are one of the hindrance in its production. A plant out of its proper place is a weed. Weeds have thought to be focused, profile, undesirable and destructive to the nature. Weeds are extraordinary significance since they can in light of the fact that noteworthy misfortunes to crop yield (Melander et al., 2015). Weeds has awesome significance since they can bring about critical misfortunes to crop yield (Haapala et al., 2014). Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are used for enhancement of growth, yield and production of vegetables. Proline is very effective PGR in this regard. Proline is an important amino acid related to environment stresses. The proteinogenic amino acidic like functions of proline as an osmolyte, electron sink, radical scavenger, chemical addition of macromolecules and an element of cell wall (Anjum et al., 2014). A nutrient proline secures the macromolecules beside denaturation and as a method for decreasing acidity in the cell (Kishor et al., 2014; Metwali et al., 2015). Proline adds to balancing the structures insurance of proteins against saltiness serve as a natural nitrogen to keep up both amino corrosive protein union Proline and betaine assume a key part as osmoprote under salted stress osmoprotectant has verified engineering to enhance (Oukarroum et al., 2012). Color can be a very practical into essential types. The table cauliflower and varieties that belong to the following distinct group are four colors which are white, green, purple and orange group. shows the diverse types of cauliflowers of sub-cellular and assumes a critical part in the (Saghfi & Eivazi, 2014). Proline may likewise repository prepared to be utilized after stress alleviation (Cha-Um & Kirdmanee, 2009 osmoprotectant in the (Demiral & Turkan, 2005). Now these to be the most preferred contrivances for osmotic stress alleviation (Ayala-Astorga. auliflower method for isolating various varieties of cauliflower. The essential color group in with respect to colors. The cauliflower is grown in various countries like America, South Asia and Japan. Cauliflower has property of antioxidant which implies they have endured to their assortment. It cans blossoms in winter season. Cauliflowers are grown in vastly in uneven ranges of Soon valley in Pakistan. It is grown almost in all countries of the world. In Pakistan its profitability is increasingly and effortlessly accessible. Cauliflower can grow in Punjab more than to different regions in Pakistan. Cauliflower in less amount accessible in those spots where precipitation is less, and not easily accessible. Cauliflower curds are white or yellow in shading. It has likewise more financial esteem in Pakistan like in bazaar available at shop, and industry. Cauliflower leafs are utilized for mineral nourishment. In Pakistan, production of cauliflower is very small because of absence of education, lack of modern equipped. Cauliflowers are utilized for medicinal reason, stomach disease, diabetes and other for blood wellbeing. Cauliflower has critical properties against tumor and sugar patient, since it has less quantity of sugar.

This article is collectively authored by Muhammad Aftab1, Rashad Mukhtar Balal1, Muhammad Adnan Shahid1,3 and Mujahid Ali2-1. Department of Horticulture, University College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, 2. Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, 3. Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food & Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Florida, USA.


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